Monday, January 13, 2014

The affirmative action propaganda machine- Part 1



In numerous quarters a propaganda narrative as to vast hordes of "unqualified" blacks supposedly causing vast white suffering in employment and education is accepted as gospel. But the reality shows that the much of the propaganda narrative is highly distorted and even bogus in some places. Furthermore the main beneficiaries of "affirmative action" are white, specifically white women. Note: this post is no brief for AA "quotas."


Whites continually blockaded so called "affirmative action" measures using administrative manipulation, subterfuge, stalling, and brute force legal struggle. Scholarly histories, (such as W. Marvin Dulaney's 1996 "Black Police in America) show the dismal landscape confronting blacks and expose the hollowness of white clams about how "meritorious" they are or have been. The good old boy 'networks' didn't seem to concerned about "merit" where blacks were concerned. 

In numerous police departments for example, whites rigged the game for decades, particularly white ethnic groups like the Irish, who used police jobs as sinecures and rewards, hiring friends, friends of friends, relatives and cronies in a cosy system of white privilege. Blacks experienced extensive discrimination. Applicants were diverted or denied. Written tests that blacks passed were routinely ignored to favor white candidates, Those that did manage to join routinely found themselves described as "nig..." by fellow officers. Black policemen were given the worse assignments, and often exclusively assigned to the worse "nig.." areas. Black officers with years on the job were sometimes denied promotion in favor of less qualified whites who were better "connected." In some departments certain police ranks were closed to blacks- only whites got promoted to them. Blacks had to file lawsuits to force departments to open up those "reserved" ranks, as in the case of Leslie Shaw, the first black police sergeant in Columbus Ohio.

Some of the above conditions described prevailed not merely in hostile Southern jurisdiction but in liberal northern ones, such as in San Francisco into the 1970s. In San Francisco as elsewhere whites waged and continue to wage deep bureaucratic warfare against "Affirmative action." When a 1970s lawsuit exposed racist practices for example, whites issued a new civil service eligibility promotion list, creating a huge batch of white captains, a supposedly "non-racial" move designed to clog the promotional pipeline to that rank for years, and thus eliminate numerous black candidates. These and other warfare measures show that far from a vast "swamping" of whites with "affirmative action" said AA has been from its very outset, severely limited and fought on every hand, contradicting the white propaganda narrative of mass "suffering" due to "quotas for blacks." See also Sanders and Cohen, 2013, The Zebra killings on San Francisco.

Even where quota systems were implemented by incoming black politicians they were often gutted or blockaded by "reverse discrimination" lawsuits or fiscal problems. Detroit's infamous 1970s quota program under Mayor Coleman Young for example, that mandated a 50-50 black-white promotion rate was immediately slapped with a lawsuit from the predominantly white police union that brought it to a halt or slowed it to a crawl. The fiscal crisis that hit the city in the 1970s further gutted the program- a hiring freeze for example meant few minorities could be hired, and layoffs meant the loss of even more minority candidates - for union rules mandated that those most recently hired or promoted feel the pain first. (Dulaney 1996) In short, quota systems were quickly sand-bagged by whites contrary to the received wisdom.

Shaky "HBD" or "heriditarian narratives try to blame crime increases on "affirmative action quotas" but such narratives remain dubious. Crime increases have been an established pattern long before any significant "affirmative action quotas" in law enforcement, and the numerical increase of minorities under "affirmative action" weighs in at less than 3%- hardly the hysterically charged "massive" numbers claimed in some quarters for "quotas."
Indeed, crime has been on an increase since the 1960s, long before any significant "affirmative action quotas" for minority police officers. Moving forward to the 1980s, the crime rate was not a tale of relentless increases. Indeed from 1980 to 1985, violent crime actually dropped in the US in most categories (US Census- Crime Rate in the United States, 1980–2012- US Dept of Justice). If a "massive" wave of incompetent minororetees, hired under the dreaded "quotas" bogeyman was swamping police departments, why did crime rates do down during this period, when AA plans had been in effect since the early and mid 1970s? From 1985 to 1990, the cycle swung the other way with the advent of crack cocaine and other problems, and that increase ALSO happened in mostly white cities, with mostly white law enforcement personnel. Again, if an unsavory wave of "quota hires" was the problem, whey did mostly white jurisdictions with few "minorities" to blame, also experience the same crime increases?

Beginning in the 1990s, the cycle shifted again and crime began to decline, even in big cities such as NYC. Crime dropped for a number of reasons- ranging from declining demographic sub-groups like youth males, to spatial distribution, to changed policing procedures (the so-called "broken windows" approach, better police deployment, more police on the street, more arrests for minor crimes that had the happy effect of nabbing more wanted criminals, etc), to longer and harsher prison sentences. The 1990s saw minority police numbers at their highest proportion in history, yet crime kept going down, contradicting assorted "HBD" narratives.

Finally assorted narratives of swarms of minorities "under quotas" allegedly swamping supposedly more virtuous white people are dubious as well. The percent increase of black officers hired in cities with consent decrees ("quotas" in the narrative) or example was a mere 2.5 percentage points more than in cities without AA consent decrees. In short the share of police employment going to dreaded "minorities" like blacks under affirmative action was laughably small, contradicting the distorted doom and gloom narratives of "HBD" lore. (US Dept of Justice, "Law Enforcement Management and Administrative Statistics" Reports(LEMAS) 1987, 1990 and 1993.)
Other Refs:

Oppel, Richard A., Jr. (May 23, 2011). "Steady Decline in Major Crime Baffles Experts". New York Times.
Eloise Dunlap (2006). "The Rise and Decline of Hard Drugs, Drug Markets, and Violence in Inner-City New York". In Blumstein, Alfred; Wallman, Joel. The Crime Drop in America. Cambridge University Pres



Summary and bottom line
Note- none of the above observations argues for particular policies such as "headcount hiring" nor do they endorse "quotas." In fact the sources mentioned above comment on certain missteps made by new black political regimes, that tried to force through headcounts, and in SOME cases, this did result in reverse discrimination against some white officers. Such was the dismal intersection between race and employment in urban America. The primary point of the examples above is not "endorsement" of "affirmative action quotas" - but to highlight deep-rooted white hypocrisy on 6 counts:

a) The narrative of a vast number of "unqualified" blacks "swamping" whites. These hordes do not exist

b) The narrative that whites are driven by "merit." History shows no such virtue, but rather persistent racial favoritism

c) The narrative of mass white suffering under "quotas" when in fact whites moved to throttle "quotas" from the very beginning, and in many cases succeeded,

d) The narrative of white innocence- when past history to the contrary shows an ugly pattern of racism and hypocrisy

e) The narrative of exclusive black benefit- when in fact "affirmative action" was quickly extended to white women and others. Additional funding to expand training or access also benefited whites as well across the board, not only "minorities." New money to expand educational facilities for example lined mostly white pockets.

f) The narrative of massive "quota hires" causing all sorts of bad outcomes is contradicted by historical data. The same bad things happened in mostly white jurisdictions with very few black scapegoats to blame, and the cycles of data expose simplistic "before and after" race narratives as not only distorted, but deceptive as well.




On the education front the same pattern repeats- the propaganda machine's narrative of "swamping" does not hold. Blacks Do Not Rely On “Quotas” To Much Extent For Higher Education.

AA in “politically correct” places like universities has in SOME cases discriminated against whites. But the fact is that blacks do not rely to any significant degree on AA quotas for access to higher education. As already noted above, the GI Bill has been a much more significant factor in opening up such access than “affirmative action.” In addition the alleged numbers of blacks “swamping” white people are rather minor.


Low Impact of AA- One study from 1982 to 1996, a "hot" period of AA before California's Prop 209 ban, found that black enrollments in college were a mere 9.7% and this climbed to a whopping 11.5% by 1996- a "massive" 1.5% increase that was comfortably outpaced by Asians and even Hispanics. The same study found that contrary to propaganda claims, black student enrollments at top-tier universities remained relatively flat- with "affirmative use of race in this [top-level] sector" not making much impact in enrollments. (Chang et al. 2000. Compelling Interest. Monograph: University of Stanford). In short, the much derided "quotas for blacks" had little impact on black enrollment in higher education overall- which remained flat. Again, the data shows that blacks do not depend significantly on "quotas" for their college access.

AA primarily a force on elite campuses with small numbers of minorities- Yet another review (Gurin et al 2003. How does Racial/Ethnic Diversity Promote Education? WJBS. 27:1) found that affirmative action exists primarily in highly selective colleges that barely have more than 8-10% black students. Such campuses are not where the vast majority, the OTHER 90-92% of black students attend. As far as college access, affirmative action is a minor player for blacks. Yet to hear the howling propaganda narrative, college campuses are swamped with "unqualified" blacks "taking slots" from "deserving white students." This is simply not the case. Again, keep in mind that all black attendees to the top tier schools do NOT need any quota arrangements- although the barrage of white propaganda makes it seem so.

AA closely limited by whites from very early on- hardly the wild “reverse discrimination” force claimed - And where are the alleged legions of white people being “hurt” by AA? In fact, AA from very early on was narrowly limited by whites- from its very beginning it was under attack. The continual narrowing of AA programs, has been long underway. In recent years it is seen in such Court cases as Grutter, etc has been causing a drop in admissions of black students. One review example (Gurin et al 2003) found that the liquidation or narrowing of AA due to court and legislative actions did cause a drop in minority admissions at higher ranked schools. But the numbers before and after show that “quotas” were hardly evil mechanism causing all these white “sufferahs.”  The AA reduction leaves smaller numbers of blacks in place, but the numbers were not that high to begin with.

AA opponents admit its limited impact - Even some academic OPPONENTS of Affirmative Action note its limited scope- in contrast to the right-wing propaganda narrative of its vast reach and influence. Richard Sander, a prominent opponent for example estimates that ending affirmative action would only curtail African-American law school enrollments by 14 percent. Whoa… Law school quotas in other words "increased the pool of black students admitted to the nation's law schools as a group by only 14 percent." (Sander and Taylor, 2012. Mismatch: How Affirmative Action Hurts Students It's Intended to help.) Note that- a mere 14 percent. So, if 100 black guys get into Berkeley Law schools, 14% may have vanished because quotas ended. But that still leaves 86% who DIDN’T need quotas. So where is this mass wave of white “suffering” due to quotas? Indeed Sanders holds that the end of AA quotas means that the WEAKER, less prepared minority candidates get eliminated. This is fair enough- they were not that many to begin with, contrary to the flood of white propaganda.

Chump change numbers - The famous Hopwood decision of the late 1990s showed that in 1996-97- right before the AA ban by the court, Black enrollments weighed in at a "massive" 4.7%, of the total enrollment at the elite Texas Law school- hardly the massive wave "swamping white people" assorted propagandists would have us to believe. In Hopwood, white plaintiffs complained that of the 18 black students admitted, 16 had lower test scores. They were certainly right. But in terms of the point addressed here, there were almost 400 students in the total pool- out of these were a mere 18 blacks, 2 of which needed no preferences. The alleged "massive impact" of affirmative action quotas for blacks is simply untrue, though right wingers continue to push this dubious propaganda point almost two decades later. If anything the numbers are in chump change territory, some 16 out of almost 400 slots or a miniscule 4%. (Orfield et al. 2007. Charting the future of college affirmative action. UCLA Civil Rights Project, regents of the University of California)

Gloom and doom prophecies about the elimination of "AA quotas" have not come to pass- suggesting that said quotas were not that critical in the first place to black education, again contradicting right-wing narratives. QUOTE:

"A similar trend played out at the University of Texas’ flagship Austin campus where race preferences were banned in 1996 by a federal appeals court ruling ( Hopwood ). In the fall of 1996, with race still being used, 266 (4.1 percent) of the first-time UT- Austin undergraduate freshmen were black students; 832 were Hispanic students (14.7 percent). By the fall of 1999, with racial preferences eliminated and replaced by a program which granted admission to every Texas high school student, regardless of race, who finished in the top 10 percent of his or her high school class, admissions returned to pre- Hopwood levels on a percentage basis and actually increased in terms of the sheer numbers of minority students who matriculated: specifically, 286 black students (4.1 percent of the first year class); and 976 Hispanic students (13.9 percent)."
--Larry Purdy (2008) Getting under the skin of dicerity,

"The sky has not fallen at Boalt Hall at the University of California, Berkeley, for example. Prior to Proposition 209’s adoption … which bars the State from “grant[ing] preferential treatment … on the basis of race … in the operation of … public education,” Boalt Hall enrolled 20 blacks and 28 Hispanics in its first-year class for 1996. In 2002, without deploying express racial discrimination in admissions, Boalt’s entering class enrolled 14 blacks and 36 Hispanics…. Total underrepresented minority student enrollment at Boalt Hall now exceeds 1996 levels. (Sec. IV, C, 2)"
--Justice Clarence Thomas, quoted in Orfield 2007. Charting the Future of college affirmative action

"According to 2000 Census data, the college graduation rate for Hispanics and African Americans was 13% and 15%, respectively, compared to 31% for Whites and 62% for Asians."
(Orfield et al. 2007. Charting the future of college affirmative action. UCLA Civil Rights Project, regents of the University of California)


In federal contracting the same pattern again challenges the white propaganda barrage: where are the piteous legions of white people allegedly being "hurt" by "quotas for blacks"? In fact since the 1980s, courts have sharply limited the use of "quotas" in contracting as demonstrated in the Croson case (1989) which ruled against minority-only contract awards, and the Adarand case (1990). In short, while courts have not entirely killed Affirmative Action or "diversity", from the 1980s they have sharply limited its applicability. And this was over 2 decades ago. California's famous Proposition 209 which outlawed was in 1996, almost 20 years ago. Cynical propaganda claims about white “sufferahs” are not only mostly bogus but woefully out of date as well.




Summary
Note- the below summary is not an endorsement of the flawed or dubious aspects of affirmative action, nor an indictment of the numerous honorable whites who have, in good faith, sought to create a more just and equitable playing field for blacks. There are such whites. Almost 60 years ago, President Harry Truman for example, while a political animal who calculated advantage and was no flaming liberal, did courageously move to desegregate the armed forces, incurring significant political criticism and risks as a result. It is rather aimed at the propaganda narrative that seeks to cast all blacks as inferior incompetents dependent on "quotas" or "diversity"  from whites.

The propaganda narrative aims to obfuscate or hide the following bottom lines:

(a) The main beneficiaries of Affirmative Action are white, particularly white women, who actually make up a majority of the population qualifying for said "affirmative" action. Whites have ensured that their own benefit- from special programs for women (who would be mostly white in numerous venues) from employment, to government contracting, to numerous social programs ostensibly for "the blacks" but in fact, whites take advantage of. Writing portions were added to the SAT for example so that more females (mostly white) could post higher scores and thus get more slots in colleges.

(b) Whites have never ceased favoring their own. They continue to do so today using BEHIND THE SCENES methods and trendy covering propaganda, including manipulation of seemingly "neutral" processes. Thus some whites who speak soothingly of "diversity" have erected zoning requirements in various neighborhoods that raise the cost of housing and decrease availability of housing. Result: LESS minorities able to buy housing, and less available on the market = LESS blacks in the hood, less blacks in the schools of that hood. Mission accomplished, and all without a single brining cross, howling lynch mob, or jackbooted concentration camp guard.

(c) Whites themselves are profiting from "diversity" or AA quotas.  Various funding streams to "help" blacks, create bureaucratic white employment and sinecures, and help mobilize even more funds in the future. Whites have also benefited by operating "fronts." As Sowell 2004 shows, the white Fanjul family from Cuba for example, with a fortune exceeding $500 million - received huge contract set asides for minority businesses. White European businessmen from Portugal received the bulk of the money paid to "minority owned construction firms" between 1986 and 1990 in Washington D.C. White people have been cashing in on the AA gig for decades since it really got rolling in the 1970s.

(d) Whites have moved early on to sandbag and block so called "affirmative action"- using lawsuits, political manipulation, court cases and systematic defunding of enforcement agencies like the EEOC, which has a backlog measured in YEARS.

(e) Whites have used affirmative action as a quick pacifier, and chump change dispenser that fobs off blacks with minor gains, while hiding larger structures of discriminatory white privilege from more intense scrutiny and exposure. Thus white government regimes from police to municipal services entered into consent agreements when blacks brought discrimination lawsuits that were a "quick fix" - ensuring that deep discrimination patterns over decades would not be uncovered or addressed. Hiring a few black tokens was/is a lot less painful that in-depth exposure of white cronyism and corruption hiding under the guise of "merit."


Joint products of "racial evolution"..

LINKS TO OTHER POSTS:

Racial discrimination is alive and kicking in employment, housing and credit markets
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2017/07/racial-discrimination-is-alive-and.html

Sowell 3- new data shows backward tropical evolution? Wealth and Poverty- An International Perspective in Trump era
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2017/07/sowell-3-new-data-shows-backward.html

Sowell 2- Wealth, Poverty and Politics- International Perspective - Trump era to bring these issues into sharper focus?
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2017/07/sowell-2-wealth-poverty-and-politics.html

Sowell- Liberal intellectuals and hard questions about race differences- Trump era may force them to focus?
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2017/07/sowell-liberal-intellectuals-and-hard.html


Trump properties discriminated against black tenants, lawsuit finds

http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2016/07/trump-properties-discriminated-against.html


Stealing credibility- Dinesh D'souza has prison epiphany- after hanging with the homies- Hallelujah Hilary!
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2016/05/straining-credibility-dinesh-dsouza-has.html

Go with the flow 3- more DNA and cranial studies show ancient African migration to, or African presence in ancient Europe
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2016/04/go-with-flow-3-more-dna-and-cranial.html

Go with the flow 2- African gene flow into Europe in various eras
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2015/11/go-with-flow-2-african-gene-flow-into.html
Go with the flow 2- African gene flow into Europe in various eras
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2015/11/go-with-flow-2-african-gene-flow-into.html

DNA studies show African movement to Europe from very ancient times
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2015/09/dna-studies-show-african-movement-to.html

Guilt3- Why the "white privilege industry" is not all there
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2015/09/guilt3-why-white-privilege-industry-is.html

Guilt2- Media collaborates with guilt mongers - or how to play the white victim card
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2015/09/guilt2-media-collaborates-with-guilt.html

How Obama plays on white guilt
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2015/08/how-obama-plays-upon-white-guilt-hilary.html

Blacks oppose free speech- more ramshackle "research" from "the East"..
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2015/08/blacks-oppose-free-speech-ramshackle.html

Hands off the Confederate flag
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2015/06/hands-off-confederate-flag.html


Despite much more wealth than blacks, whites collect about the same rate of welfare and are treated more generously
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2015/06/despite-much-more-wealth-than-blacks.html

African "boat people" ushering in European demographic decline
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2015/05/african-boat-people-ushering-in.html


The forgotten Holocaust- King Leopold's "Congo Free State" - 10 million victims
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2015/04/the-forgotten-holocaust-10-million-in.html

Are violent minorities taking over California and the West?
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2015/04/are-violent-minorities-taking-over.html

Presidential hopeful Ben Carson meets and Greeks
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2015/03/presidential-hopeful-ben-carson-meet.html

Contra "ISIS" partisans, there have been some beneficial effects of Christianity
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2015/03/contra-isis-partisans-there-are-some.html

The social construction of race, compared to biology- Graves
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2015/02/the-social-construction-of-race_8.html

 Why HBD or hereditarianism lacks credibility
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/10/why-hbd-or-hereditarianism-lacks.html

Leading Scientists criticize hereditarian claims
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/08/leading-scientists-criticize.html

Thai me down - Thais fall behind genetically related southern Chinese, Tibetans below genetically related East Asians like Koreans and other Chinese
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/08/thai-me-up-thai-me-down.html

Time for liberals to respect "the south" ... in a way of speaking.. the south of Egypt that is..
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/08/time-for-liberals-to-respect-south-in.html

Irony 2: touted High IQ "G-men" cannot reproduce themselves 
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/07/irony-2-higher-iqs-correlated-with_25.html


Unz and Sowell: Unz debunking Lynn's IQ and Wealth of Nations. Sowell debunking the Bell Curve
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/07/unz-and-sowell-unz-debunking-lynns-iq.html

Irony 1: touted High IQ types are more homosexual, more atheist, and more liberal (HAL)
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/06/irony-high-iqs-produce-more-atheists.html


Elite white universities discriminate against Asians using reverse "affirmative action"
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/06/elite-white-universities-discriminate.html

Deteriorating state of white America
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/05/deteriorating-state-of-white-america.html



Exploding nonsense: the 10,000 Year Explosion
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/03/exploding-nonsense-review-of-cochran_8.html


We need "rational racism"?
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/01/we-need-rational-racism-proponent.html

The Affirmative Action Propaganda Machine- part 1
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/01/the-affirmatve-action-propaganda.html

Two rules for being "really" black- no white wimmen, no Republican
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/01/to-be-really-black-you-cant-have-white.html

The Axial age reconsidered
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/01/the-axial-age-reconsidered.html

Cannibal seasonings: dark meat on white
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2013/12/i.html

"Affirmative Action" in the form of court remedies has been around a long time- since the 1930s- benefiting white union workers against discrimination by employers
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2013/09/affirmative-action-as-term-appears-in.html

Mugged by reality 1: White quotas, special preferences and government jobs
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2013/06/mugged-by-reality-1-white-quotas.html


Lightweight enforcement of EEO laws contradicts claims of "flood" of minorities "taking jobs"
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2013/06/blog-post.html

Railroaded 3: white violence and intimidation imposed quotas
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2013/06/railroaded-3-white-violence-and.html

Railroaded 2: how white quotas and special preferences blockade black progress...
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2013/06/railroaded-2-thow-white-quotas-and.html

Railroaded 1: How white affirmative action and white special preferences destroyed black railroad employment...
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2013/06/railroaded-how-white-affirmative-action.html

Affirmative action: primary beneficiaries are white women
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2011/04/affirmative-action-primary.html


7 reasons certain libertarians and right-wingers are wrong about the Civil Right Act
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2012/05/7-reasons-libertarians-may-be-wrong.html

Social philosophy of Thomas Sowell
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2011/07/social-philosophy-of-thomas-sowell.html


Bogus "biodiversity" theories of Kanazawa, Ruston, Lynn debunked
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2010/09/blog-post.html

JP Rushton, Michael Levin, Richard Lynn debunked. Weaknesses of Jared Diamond's approach. 
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2010/04/blog-post_1818.html

In the Blood- debunking "HBD" and Neo-Nazi appropriation of ancient Egypt 
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2009/11/blog-post_29.html


early Europeans and middle Easterners looked like Africans. Peoples returning or "backflowing" to Africa would already be looking like Africans
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2010/05/blog-post_1754.html

 Ancient Egypt: one of the world's most advanced civilizations- created by tropical peoples
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2010/09/blog-post_06.html

Playing the "Greek defence" -debunking claims of Greeks as paragons of virtue or exemplars of goodness
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2013/03/playing-greek-defence-review-of-thornton.html

Quotations from mainstream academic research on the Nile Valley peoples
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2010/04/blog-post_9251.html

Assorted data debunking
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2009/11/blog-post_5570.html


Evolution, brain size, and the national IQ of peoples ... - Jelte Wicherts 2010
http://wicherts.socsci.uva.nl/wichertsPAIDrejoinder.pdf
------------------------------------

Why national IQs do not support evolutionary theories of intelligence - WIcherts, Borsboom and Dolan 2010
Personality and Individual Differences 48 (2010) 91-96
http://wicherts.socsci.uva.nl/wicherts2010.pdf
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Are intelligence tests measurement invariant over time? by JM Wicherts - ?2004
 --Dolan, Wicherts et al 2004. Investigating the nature of the Flynn effect. Intelligence 32 (2004) 509-537
http://www.iapsych.com/iqmr/fe/LinkedDocuments/wicherts2004.pdf
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LYNN AND VANHAVEN'S IQ AND THE WEALTH OF NATIONS DEBUNKED
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www.anth.uconn.edu/faculty/mcbrearty/Pdf/McB%20&%20Brooks%202000%20TRTW.pdf

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Race and other misadventures: essays in honor of Ashley Montagu... By Larry T. Reynolds, Leonard Lieberman

http://books.google.com/books?id=5DLrgG_MflgC&pg=PA190&dq=r-+k-+selection+races&cd=1#v=onepage&q=r-%20k-%20selection%20races&f=false
--------------------------------

Race and intelligence: separating science from myth. By Jefferson M. Fish. Routledge 2002. See Templeton's detailed article referenced above also inside the book

http://books.google.com/books?id=t9OdPPLIgMAC&pg=PA64&dq=r-+k-+selection+races&cd=7#v=onepage&q=r-%20k-%20selection%20races&f=false
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http://www.ogiek.org/indepth/what-they-mean.htm
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Oubre, A (2011) Race Genes and Ability: Rethinking Ethnic Differences, vol 1 and 2. BTI Press
For summary see: http://www.skeptic.com/eskeptic/05-02-18/
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http://www.dartmouth.edu/~chance/course/topics/curveball.html

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--S OY Keita, R A Kittles, et al. "Conceptualizing human variation," Nature Genetics 36, S17 - S20 (2004)
http://www.nature.com/ng/journal/v36/n11s/pdf/ng1455.pdf


--S.O.Y. Keita and Rick Kittles. (1997) *The Persistence ofRacial Thinking and the Myth of Racial Divergence. AJPA, 99:3
http://www.councilforresponsiblegenetics.org/pageDocuments/WAURRSZQOE.pdf
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HBD RACE EVOLUTION CLAIMS DEBUNKED BY GENETICISTS
Alan Templeton. "The Genetic and Evolutionary significnce oF Human Races." pp 31-56. IN: J. FiSh (2002) Race and Intelligence: Separating scinnce from myth.
http://img560.imageshack.us/img560/239/templeton1humanracesinf.jpg
http://img685.imageshack.us/img685/2731/templeton2humanracesinf.jpg

HBD RACE AND INTELLIGENCE CLAIMS DEBUNKED
 J. FiSh (2002) Race and Intelligence: Separating science from myth.

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MORE HBD DEBUNKING
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Oubre, A (2011) Race Genes and Ability: Rethinking Ethnic Differences, vol 1 and 2. BTI Press
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Krimsky, S, Sloan.K (2011) Race and the Genetic Revolution: Science, Myth, and Culture
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Wicherts and Johnson, 2009. Group differences in the heritability of items and test scores
http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/early/2009/04/24/rspb.2009.0238.full


http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2013/06/coming-apart-can-murrays-down-with.html


"SELECTION FOR"- "SELECT FOR" HDB CLAIMS DEBUNKED- "SELECTION" IS NOT THE ONLY KEY FORCE DRIVING CHANGE
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2012/12/demic-diffusion-notes-and-tropical.html

http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2012/05/7-reasons-libertarians-may-be-wrong.html

http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2012/08/cro-magnons-are-us-debunking-claims.html

http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/03/exploding-nonsense-review-of-cochran_8.html



--Joseph Graves, 2006. What We Know and What We Don’t Know: Human Genetic Variation and the Social Construction of Race
http://raceandgenomics.ssrc.org/Graves/

J. Kahn (2013) How a Drug Becomes "Ethnic" - Yale Journal of Health Policy, Law and Ethics, v4:1
http://digitalcommons.law.yale.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1072&context=yjhple

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http://evolution.binghamton.edu/evos/wp-content/uploads/2012/04/PageProofs-Graves_race.pdf

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