Sunday, May 1, 2016

Stealing credibility- Dinesh D'souza has prison epiphany- after hanging with the homies- Hallelujah Hilary!




Dinesh D'souza seems to be straining credibility again.. But why aren't people outside the echo chamber surprised?  This post looks at his new 2016 book "Stealing America." It is a laugher. Exposed for his own corruption and adultery, as documented at his trial, D'souza attempts to lay the groundwork for a comeback with a new package of propaganda and white lies - a laughable attempt to "spin" his own corruption and exposure by playing the "prison redemption" card, and presenting himself as some sort of "martyr." In this new spin package, D'souza had this supposed epiphany by talking to the cons while he was incarcerated. You see homes, they told him some stuff about gangs, and presto- our chap D'souza had the blinding insight that "criminal gangs" can be likened to how "the liberals" (insert other enemies here..:) operate. Dang! Who woulda thunk the cons were blessed with such wit and wisdom?


certayfied gangsta...

Where these hardcore cons supposed to be homes?
 But right off the bat D'souza's "redemption spin" fails. He says that his "experience with criminal gangs" opened up his eyes to the criminality of "the liberals." One cannot help but fall to the floor laughing. For one thing, a panty-waist like D'souza got an easy ride. He served his sentence in a light security "confinement center" in San Diego County- at which he did not even have to spend the entire day, but checked in at night for 8 hours. He was then free to leave- the rest of the day was his. And he served a mere 8 months- a slap on the wrist, after which he had to do some light duty community service, and pay a piddling fine - chump change for a man raking in hundreds of thousands every year via his books and videos It is not a venue crawling with hard-core "criminal gangs." Hell, the place seems like one of those celebrity prisons where affluent shallow white types like Paris Hilton go to serve their "sentences." The insinuation of a grizzled wise guy or hardcase gang-banger pulling D'souza aside for "conferencing and commiseration" in said "Community Confinement Center" is totally ludicrous. Right off the bat, D'souza's "prison epiphany" fails the smell test.


The easy ride- coddling wrongdoers?
What is ironic is that the right wing D'souza himself has railed against "coddling" lawbreakers and criminal justice leniency, but turns out he himself benefited from "coddling" with an easy-to-serve sentence, at a wrist slap venue, escaping two years of hard time with REAL gang-bangers. Yet with such an easy sentence, the hypocrite whines about "persecution." Also ironic- it was the same D'souza who rails against "irresponsible blacks" that himself was caught out in conduct grossly irresponsible, including not only his bribery scheme, but cheating on his wife, and on top of that, taking his mistress to a Christian conference. All of these are well documented at his trial, and elsewhere.

Even more telling, D'souza  who has railed against "a sense of entitlement" by "the liberals," blacks and other enemies, is himself a smug seeker of entitlement favor. As reported in several media outlets, he requested "a summer break" from this community service duties- teaching ESL kids at a local private school. Whoa! Tough duty bwoy!  "With respect to [the] request that Mr. D'Souza's community service hours be `waived' from June 1, 2015, until July 13, 2015, the request is respectfully denied..  The short explanation is, as all criminal defendants are aware, that we don't provide `summer breaks' in these circumstances," federal judge Berman wrote.

Instead of finding an alternative means of performing community service when the school let out for the summer, D’Souza had his parole officer petition the court for a “summer break.” Rather lazy of you, eh old chap- you who has railed against "lazy" blacks. Why are YOU trying to get out of your own obligations? Interestingly (and it illustrates not only Dsouza's sense of entitlement but also his vanity), the probation officer included a copy of a Vanity Fair profile in the "summer break" request.- as if that puff piece was supposed to impress. To which the judge sardonically responded:  “the court has no immediate reaction other than the article suggests several fertile areas of discussion during Mr. D’Souza’s required therapeutic counseling.” Sho nuff... Perhaps Dsouza thinks this is India where some puffery and influence can grease the skids, eh? Now what does this say about Dsouza's own invocation of "rational racism" as regards how certain minorities are viewed? The judge ordered counseling to continue because D'souza not only displays arrogance but seems to be unaware that he has done anything wrong. Mayhaps a little counseling with that non-summer break might help..
http://www.salon.com/2015/05/06/dinesh_dsouzas_request_for_a_summer_break_from_community_service_gets_slapped_down_by_federal_judge/




Whining the "victim" card..

The second thing that stands out bout this book, aside from the distorted "spin," is how D'souza continues whining. Constantly trying to minimize his own culpability, he keeps playing the "victim" card- oh dear- the heroic teller of truths, unjustly persecuted by "politically correct" forces.. LOL.. Only D'souza's echo chamber of acolytes or gullible flunkies buys this rubbish. He tried the same "victim card" approach at his trial and drew a sharp rebuke from the judge who noted he was long on portraying himself as a "victim" but short on acknowledging remorse or responsibility for his actions. The judge dismissed D'souza's claims of political prosecution as whining, and rebuked him repeatedly for his self-serving explanations of the behavior he had pled guilty to. The judge even quoted from a letter to the court from Mr. D’Souza’s white ex-wife, Dixie D’Souza, in which she said he had a “flawed character and lack of truthfulness” and accused him of physically abusing her. (NY Times- D’Souza Avoids Prison in Campaign Finance Case. Sept. 23, 2014).




Yes "the liberals" can be gangsters but how come we don't hear about conservative "gangstas"?

But this is typical D'souza, a vain, self-serving distorter of the truth. His book is along the same intellectually dishonest lines, just as his book: "America- Imagine A World Without Her" is similarly dishonest. In "America" for example he claims that Obama was elected due to "white guilt." This laughable bit of rubbish, eaten up by the dull hordes of the right as "the truth" was debunked in detail earlier- where it was pointed out- Obama received about the same number of votes as previous white Dem politicians- like Clinton or Carter. White people did not go out of their way to vote for him, more, nor apparently were they impressed by the hapless "grizzly" Sarah Palin and John McCain the right wing ut up as alternatives. But D'souza is a master at dealing in rubbish.

In "Stealing America" he tries yet more of the same shell game, attempting to drive home the claim as he writes that due to this alleged "epiphany"-  the current administration is essentially just a criminal machine/gang, running things mostly to benefit themselves & their masters (bankers/corporate globalist elitists). Hilary will continue the same "racket" he "learned." Whooo... What he doesn't mention is that conservatives themselves are quite skilled at gangsterism- and indeed said conservatives were at the forefront of, or cheered along the weakening of government regulations designed to keep financial and other "gangsterism" in check. It was under his hero Ronald Reagan for example that a huge wave of such deregulation began, a trend that continued on into the George W Bush administration, as detailed studies such as (Thomas O. McGarity- Freedom to Harm: The Lasting Legacy of the Laissez Faire Revival-2013 demonstrate. This weakening was one of the key components that led to the crash of 2007-2008- which by the way was accompanied by a bailout package that was quite generous to the financial gangsters- proposed initially by Bush. But none of this gets much ink in D'souza's distorted world.



Indian D'souza himself benefited from allegedly "unneeded" Civil Rights Laws or rulings- like freedom from segregation and freedom to marry his white wife, something forbidden before "unneeded" civil rights laws and supporting court decisions. 

 The Indian D'souza may not even have been allowed to become a citizen at one time in America.  In 1923 the US Supreme Court ruled that Asian Indians were not eligible for citizenship, stripping several naturalized Indians of citizenship. A 1922 federal law stipulated that women who married aliens ineligible for citizenship would lose theirs- provisions not lifted until the 1940s. Had he lived in America just 4 decades prior to his arrival he and his white wife might have been non-citizens. The 1921 and 1924 immigration law set numerical limits but only for Europeans. Other non-whites were banned. The book by Ian Haney 1996- White by law: the legal construction of race" sets out the dismal facts in detail. It took decades of struggle, suffering and sacrifice to get such things reversed.

But along comes the hypocrite Dsouza to benefit on the backs of those who suffered, even as he dismisses civil rights protections as "unneeded" directly or by implication.  Since he arrived on American shores in 1978, well AFTER all the messy and ugly business of the "unneeded" Civil Rights law he dismisses, he and white wife get to stay in any public accommodations he chooses, can pretty much buy housing where they want, and get to send their kids pretty much to the schools they want, without being blocked and sandbagged by racist Realtors, restaurant owners or bureaucrats. Furthermore, he and Dixie lived in Virginia, a state that once imprisoned or threatened to imprison interracial couples for the crime of "miscegenation." D'Souza gets to have to both ways, He can dismiss Civil Rights laws as "unneeded," because as an "honorary white" immigrant coming after the fact, he can enjoy all the benefits of that which he dismisses, and never had to worry like say, interracial couple Mildred Loving and her husband- miscegenation "criminals" sentenced to jail or exile.

As a class, white women like Dsouza's wife Dixie benefited most from "affirmative action"..


The man with special insight- on a special mission

His nickname among certain press journalists "Distort Denewsa" is apt. Aside from his so-called "epiphany" during which he allegedly "learned" from "criminal gangs" the rest of the book is another rehash of talking points he has made before. Gee ain't Obama awful, and won't Hilary be too?

One thing that doesn't make it into his book is what he proposed in his 1996 tome -"The End of Racism" - where be advocated re-appealing key provisions of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. He has never retracted this and his hypocritical posturing that he had some sort of "special insight" into "race relations" is the same approach he repeats in this book- only this time the "special insight" he gains is due to "time spent" with "criminal gangs"..

Pause... stifle laughter..



A scammer by any other name- himself a beneficiary of "special preferences" ...
Finally D'souza organizes his chapters to talk of "scams"- Chapter 5 the reparations scam, Chapter 6 the greed & inequality scam etc. Most of these chapters are simply  repackaged talking points, presented with the usual snark and cherry picked anecdotes. But it really a "scam" to question the high levels of CEO pay especially involving companies they have run into trouble? Is it a "scam" to question the favoritism shown of the bankers and financiers who got bailed out in 2008/2009? Is it a "scam" to question police misconduct including pervasive falsification of arrest reports when certain things happen? Reasonable people can certainly disagree on the issues but why are so many areas of social policy waved aside as a "scam," save as a propaganda tactic to dismiss having to address the evidence or engage in honest debate?

Dsouza reserves much rhetoric for being "agin" special "preferences" but as already noted above, "preferences" are quite beneficial to certain whites. Why is there so little in-depth discussion of that aspect? Ironically D'souza himself is the beneficiary of special "affirmative action" preferences. He was appointed "scholar" at prestigious Hoover Institute at Stanford for example, despite having no serious scholarly publication, or peer reviewed article published, and only having a BA in English. He was appointed president of prestigious private Kings College despite no experience in academic administration, or ministry. As one detailed analysis notes:

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"He holds the post of  “scholar” [Rishwain Scholar at Stanford University’s prestigious Hoover Institution] but has earned only a BA in English from Dartmouth where he eventually transferred. At age 26, he served as Senior Domestic Policy Analyst under Reagan without a shred of serious policy training. In fact D’Souza, the political “expert,” has no training whatsoever in social science. Moreover, he has been appointed to two research institute positions without a single peer- reviewed essay or publication. And, perhaps not surprisingly, he is treated as a serious intellectual in the media and publishing world despite the remarkable lack of research that goes into his books. 

As an immigrant “success” story, his is more reminiscent of the political patronage and smoke-filled backroom promotions of over a century ago—only this time ethnicity and tribalism are denounced and denied as the source of D’Souza’s power. In reality, D’Souza has little in the way of credentials or training to merit any of his promotions... If Dinesh D’Souza were not East Indian, he would simply have no role to play for the Right: there would be no White House credentials, no appointments as “scholar,” and no press."

  FROM: --How Dinesh Gets Over: The Unmeritorious Scholarship of Dinesh D'Souza, by Christine Kelly- 2003- Logosonline



Oh by the way- D'souza as seen previously had some kind things to say about "rational racism" - but he didn't need special insight from "criminal gangs" to draw his conclusions.   Bottom line- if you want good entertainment by a skillful, self-serving fibber and distorter this book is for you. If you want a standard rehash of right wing talking points, cheered along by an echo chamber of "the faithful" then this book is certainly for you. If not, skip it. Note this review does not apply to other works where D'souza seems more sincere such as his books on Christianity- but hypocrisy and mendacity not sincerity seem more to mark this one. Perhaps his polemic should be called "Stealing Credibility."

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LINKS TO OTHER POSTS:

Stealing credibility- Dinesh D'souza has prison epiphany- after hanging with the homies- Hallelujah Hilary!
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2016/05/straining-credibility-dinesh-dsouza-has.html

Go with the flow 3- more DNA and cranial studies show ancient African migration to, or African presence in ancient Europe
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2016/04/go-with-flow-3-more-dna-and-cranial.html

Go with the flow 2- African gene flow into Europe in various eras
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2015/11/go-with-flow-2-african-gene-flow-into.html


DNA studies show African movement to Europe from very ancient times
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2015/09/dna-studies-show-african-movement-to.html

Guilt3- Why the "white privilege industry" is not all there
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2015/09/guilt3-why-white-privilege-industry-is.html

Guilt2- Media collaborates with guilt mongers - or how to play the white victim card
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2015/09/guilt2-media-collaborates-with-guilt.html

How Obama plays on white guilt
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2015/08/how-obama-plays-upon-white-guilt-hilary.html

Blacks oppose free speech- more ramshackle "research" from "the East"..
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2015/08/blacks-oppose-free-speech-ramshackle.html

Hands off the Confederate flag
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2015/06/hands-off-confederate-flag.html

Despite much more wealth than blacks, whites collect about the same rate of welfare and are treated more generously
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2015/06/despite-much-more-wealth-than-blacks.html

African "boat people" ushering in European demographic decline
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2015/05/african-boat-people-ushering-in.html



The forgotten Holocaust- King Leopold's "Congo Free State" - 10 million victims
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2015/04/the-forgotten-holocaust-10-million-in.html


Are violent minorities taking over California and the West?
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2015/04/are-violent-minorities-taking-over.html

Presidential hopeful Ben Carson meets and Greeks
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2015/03/presidential-hopeful-ben-carson-meet.html

Contra "ISIS" partisans, there have been some beneficial effects of Christianity
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2015/03/contra-isis-partisans-there-are-some.html


The social construction of race, compared to biology- Graves
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2015/02/the-social-construction-of-race_8.html

Why HBD or hereditarianism lacks credibility
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/10/why-hbd-or-hereditarianism-lacks.html

Leading Scientists criticize hereditarian claims
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/08/leading-scientists-criticize.html

Thai me down - Thais fall behind genetically related southern Chinese, Tibetans below genetically related East Asians like Koreans and other Chinese
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/08/thai-me-up-thai-me-down.html

Time for liberals to respect "the south" ... in a way of speaking.. the south of Egypt that is..
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/08/time-for-liberals-to-respect-south-in.html

Irony 2: touted High IQ "G-men" cannot reproduce themselves 
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/07/irony-2-higher-iqs-correlated-with_25.html



Unz and Sowell: Unz debunking Lynn's IQ and Wealth of Nations. Sowell debunking the Bell Curve
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/07/unz-and-sowell-unz-debunking-lynns-iq.html

Irony 1: touted High IQ types are more homosexual, more atheist, and more liberal (HAL)
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/06/irony-high-iqs-produce-more-atheists.html


Elite white universities discriminate against Asians using reverse "affirmative action"
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/06/elite-white-universities-discriminate.html

Deteriorating state of white America
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/05/deteriorating-state-of-white-america.html


Racial Cartels (The Affirmative Action Propaganda machine- part 2
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/05/the-affirmative-action-propaganda.html

Hereditarian's/HBD's "Great Black Hope"
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/04/blog-post.html



Exploding nonsense: the 10,000 Year Explosion
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/03/exploding-nonsense-review-of-cochran_8.html


We need "rational racism"- Convicted felon Dinesh Dsouza becomes his own test case
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/01/we-need-rational-racism-proponent.html

The Affirmative Action Propaganda Machine- part 1
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/01/the-affirmatve-action-propaganda.html

Two rules for being "really" black- no white wimmen, no Republican
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/01/to-be-really-black-you-cant-have-white.html

The Axial age reconsidered
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/01/the-axial-age-reconsidered.html

Cannibal seasonings: dark meat on white
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2013/12/i.html

"Affirmative Action" in the form of court remedies has been around a long time- since the 1930s- benefiting white union workers against discrimination by employers
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2013/09/affirmative-action-as-term-appears-in.html

Mugged by reality 1: White quotas, special preferences and government jobs
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2013/06/mugged-by-reality-1-white-quotas.html


Lightweight enforcement of EEO laws contradicts claims of "flood" of minorities "taking jobs"
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2013/06/blog-post.html

Railroaded 3: white violence and intimidation imposed quotas
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2013/06/railroaded-3-white-violence-and.html

Railroaded 2: how white quotas and special preferences blockade black progress...
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2013/06/railroaded-2-thow-white-quotas-and.html

Railroaded 1: How white affirmative action and white special preferences destroyed black railroad employment...
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2013/06/railroaded-how-white-affirmative-action.html

Affirmative action: primary beneficiaries are white women...
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2011/04/quick-regime-kill-hopes-in-libya.html

7 reasons certain libertarians and right-wingers are wrong about the Civil Right Act
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2012/05/7-reasons-libertarians-may-be-wrong.html

Assorted "Role models" debunked- hypocritical hereditarianism
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2009/11/blog-post_5570.html


Social philosophy of Thomas Sowell
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2011/07/social-philosophy-of-thomas-sowell.html


Additional gene flow data... :)


Bogus "biodiversity" theories of Kanazawa, Ruston, Lynn debunked
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2010/09/blog-post.html

JP Rushton, Michael Levin, Richard Lynn debunked. Weaknesses of Jared Diamond's approach. 
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2010/04/blog-post_1818.html

In the Blood- debunking "HBD" and Neo-Nazi appropriation of ancient Egypt
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2009/11/blog-post_29.html

early Europeans and middle Easterners looked like Africans. Peoples returning or "backflowing" to Africa would already be looking like Africans
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2010/05/blog-post_1754.html

 Ancient Egypt: one of the world's most advanced civilizations- created by tropical peoples
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2010/09/blog-post_06.html

Playing the "Greek defence" -debunking claims of Greeks as paragons of virtue or exemplars of goodness
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2013/03/playing-greek-defence-review-of-thornton.html

Quotations from mainstream academic research on the Nile Valley peoples
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2010/04/blog-post_9251.html


http://egyptsearchreloaded.proboards.com/thread/15/basic-database-nile-valley-studies



OTHER LINKS
Race, IQ, and Wealth: What the facts tell us about a taboo subject By Ron Unz


HBD EVOLUTION, BRAIN SIZE AND NATIONAL IQ CLAIMS DEBUNKED
Evolution, brain size, and the national IQ of peoples ... - Jelte Wicherts 2010
http://wicherts.socsci.uva.nl/wichertsPAIDrejoinder.pdf
------------------------------------

Why national IQs do not support evolutionary theories of intelligence - WIcherts, Borsboom and Dolan 2010
Personality and Individual Differences 48 (2010) 91-96
http://wicherts.socsci.uva.nl/wicherts2010.pdf
----------------------------- -------------

Are intelligence tests measurement invariant over time? by JM Wicherts - ?2004
 --Dolan, Wicherts et al 2004. Investigating the nature of the Flynn effect. Intelligence 32 (2004) 509-537
http://www.iapsych.com/iqmr/fe/LinkedDocuments/wicherts2004.pdf
-------------------------------------------

LYNN AND VANHAVEN'S IQ AND THE WEALTH OF NATIONS DEBUNKED
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www.anth.uconn.edu/faculty/mcbrearty/Pdf/McB%20&%20Brooks%202000%20TRTW.pdf

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Race and other misadventures: essays in honor of Ashley Montagu... By Larry T. Reynolds, Leonard Lieberman

http://books.google.com/books?id=5DLrgG_MflgC&pg=PA190&dq=r-+k-+selection+races&cd=1#v=onepage&q=r-%20k-%20selection%20races&f=false
--------------------------------

Race and intelligence: separating science from myth. By Jefferson M. Fish. Routledge 2002. See Templeton's detailed article referenced above also inside the book

http://books.google.com/books?id=t9OdPPLIgMAC&pg=PA64&dq=r-+k-+selection+races&cd=7#v=onepage&q=r-%20k-%20selection%20races&f=false
------------------------

http://www.ogiek.org/indepth/what-they-mean.htm
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Oubre, A (2011) Race Genes and Ability: Rethinking Ethnic Differences, vol 1 and 2. BTI Press
For summary see: http://www.skeptic.com/eskeptic/05-02-18/
---------------- -------

http://www.dartmouth.edu/~chance/course/topics/curveball.html

-----------------------------------------------------------

--S OY Keita, R A Kittles, et al. "Conceptualizing human variation," Nature Genetics 36, S17 - S20 (2004)
http://www.nature.com/ng/journal/v36/n11s/pdf/ng1455.pdf


--S.O.Y. Keita and Rick Kittles. (1997) *The Persistence ofRacial Thinking and the Myth of Racial Divergence. AJPA, 99:3
http://www.councilforresponsiblegenetics.org/pageDocuments/WAURRSZQOE.pdf
---------------- -------

HBD RACE EVOLUTION CLAIMS DEBUNKED BY GENETICISTS
Alan Templeton. "The Genetic and Evolutionary significnce oF Human Races." pp 31-56. IN: J. FiSh (2002) Race and Intelligence: Separating scinnce from myth.

IQ claims and miscellaneous data
HBD RACE AND INTELLIGENCE CLAIMS DEBUNKED
 J. FiSh (2002) Race and Intelligence: Separating science from myth.

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MORE HBD DEBUNKING
-------------------------------- ---------------------



Oubre, A (2011) Race Genes and Ability: Rethinking Ethnic Differences, vol 1 and 2. BTI Press
----------------------------------------------

Krimsky, S, Sloan.K (2011) Race and the Genetic Revolution: Science, Myth, and Culture
-------------------------------


Wicherts and Johnson, 2009. Group differences in the heritability of items and test scores
http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/early/2009/04/24/rspb.2009.0238.full


http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2013/06/coming-apart-can-murrays-down-with.html


"SELECTION FOR"- "SELECT FOR" HDB CLAIMS DEBUNKED- "SELECTION" IS NOT THE ONLY KEY FORCE DRIVING CHANGE
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2012/12/demic-diffusion-notes-and-tropical.html

http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2012/05/7-reasons-libertarians-may-be-wrong.html

http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2012/08/cro-magnons-are-us-debunking-claims.html

http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/03/exploding-nonsense-review-of-cochran_8.html



--Joseph Graves, 2006. What We Know and What We Don’t Know: Human Genetic Variation and the Social Construction of Race
http://raceandgenomics.ssrc.org/Graves/

J. Kahn (2013) How a Drug Becomes "Ethnic" - Yale Journal of Health Policy, Law and Ethics, v4:1
http://digitalcommons.law.yale.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1072&context=yjhple

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http://evolution.binghamton.edu/evos/wp-content/uploads/2012/04/PageProofs-Graves_race.pdf

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other links



Evolution, brain size, and the national IQ of peoples ... - Jelte Wicherts 2010
http://wicherts.socsci.uva.nl/wichertsPAIDrejoinder.pdf
------------------------------------

Why national IQs do not support evolutionary theories of intelligence - WIcherts, Borsboom and Dolan 2010
Personality and Individual Differences 48 (2010) 91-96
http://wicherts.socsci.uva.nl/wicherts2010.pdf
----------------------------- -------------

Are intelligence tests measurement invariant over time? by JM Wicherts - ?2004
 --Dolan, Wicherts et al 2004. Investigating the nature of the Flynn effect. Intelligence 32 (2004) 509-537
http://www.iapsych.com/iqmr/fe/LinkedDocuments/wicherts2004.pdf
-------------------------------------------

LYNN AND VANHAVEN'S IQ AND THE WEALTH OF NATIONS DEBUNKED
---------------- -------

www.anth.uconn.edu/faculty/mcbrearty/Pdf/McB%20&%20Brooks%202000%20TRTW.pdf

------------------------

Race and other misadventures: essays in honor of Ashley Montagu... By Larry T. Reynolds, Leonard Lieberman

http://books.google.com/books?id=5DLrgG_MflgC&pg=PA190&dq=r-+k-+selection+races&cd=1#v=onepage&q=r-%20k-%20selection%20races&f=false
--------------------------------

Race and intelligence: separating science from myth. By Jefferson M. Fish. Routledge 2002. See Templeton's detailed article referenced above also inside the book

http://books.google.com/books?id=t9OdPPLIgMAC&pg=PA64&dq=r-+k-+selection+races&cd=7#v=onepage&q=r-%20k-%20selection%20races&f=false
------------------------

http://www.ogiek.org/indepth/what-they-mean.htm
---------------- -------

Oubre, A (2011) Race Genes and Ability: Rethinking Ethnic Differences, vol 1 and 2. BTI Press
For summary see: http://www.skeptic.com/eskeptic/05-02-18/
---------------- -------

http://www.dartmouth.edu/~chance/course/topics/curveball.html

-----------------------------------------------------------

--S OY Keita, R A Kittles, et al. "Conceptualizing human variation," Nature Genetics 36, S17 - S20 (2004)
http://www.nature.com/ng/journal/v36/n11s/pdf/ng1455.pdf


--S.O.Y. Keita and Rick Kittles. (1997) *The Persistence ofRacial Thinking and the Myth of Racial Divergence. AJPA, 99:3
http://www.councilforresponsiblegenetics.org/pageDocuments/WAURRSZQOE.pdf
---------------- -------

HBD RACE EVOLUTION CLAIMS DEBUNKED BY GENETICISTS
Alan Templeton. "The Genetic and Evolutionary significnce oF Human Races." pp 31-56. IN: J. FiSh (2002) Race and Intelligence: Separating scinnce from myth.


HBD RACE AND INTELLIGENCE CLAIMS DEBUNKED
 J. FiSh (2002) Race and Intelligence: Separating science from myth.

------------------------------------------




MORE HBD DEBUNKING
-------------------------------- ---------------------

Oubre, A (2011) Race Genes and Ability: Rethinking Ethnic Differences, vol 1 and 2. BTI Press
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Krimsky, S, Sloan.K (2011) Race and the Genetic Revolution: Science, Myth, and Culture
-------------------------------


Wicherts and Johnson, 2009. Group differences in the heritability of items and test scores
http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/early/2009/04/24/rspb.2009.0238.full


http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2013/06/coming-apart-can-murrays-down-with.html


"SELECTION FOR"- "SELECT FOR" HDB CLAIMS DEBUNKED- "SELECTION" IS NOT THE ONLY KEY FORCE DRIVING CHANGE
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2012/12/demic-diffusion-notes-and-tropical.html

http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2012/05/7-reasons-libertarians-may-be-wrong.html

http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2012/08/cro-magnons-are-us-debunking-claims.html

http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/03/exploding-nonsense-review-of-cochran_8.html



--Joseph Graves, 2006. What We Know and What We Don’t Know: Human Genetic Variation and the Social Construction of Race
http://raceandgenomics.ssrc.org/Graves/

J. Kahn (2013) How a Drug Becomes "Ethnic" - Yale Journal of Health Policy, Law and Ethics, v4:1
http://digitalcommons.law.yale.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1072&context=yjhple

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http://evolution.binghamton.edu/evos/wp-content/uploads/2012/04/PageProofs-Graves_race.pdf


-

--

Saturday, April 23, 2016

Go with the flow 3- more DNA and cranial studies show ancient African migration to, or African presence in ancient Europe

`

conexiones sorprendentes ..
 ".. the ancient sample of the Iberian Peninsula
highlights
the presence of
50% of sub-Saharan lines." 

--Fernandez 2005.

This post wraps up our trilogy on ancient African movement into ancient Europe, by looking at additional links via Iberia (ancient Spain). Some recent findings from DNA studies of movement to Iberia are discussed. Previous posts also looked at Greece, Italy and the Balkans. Again to dismiss the inevitably fake strawmen  when such matters arise- this post does NOT claim Spaniards, Greeks, Italians, Sardinians or other of today's Europeans are wholly "Africans," or "black " or that they cease being "European" or "white" -  but that in various measures, in some eras, distinctive ancient African gene flow into ancient Europe can be detected well before the modern slave trade/colonial era, and well before the historic era. Fake strawmen  out of the way- let's once again get down to business. 



Ancient African movement detected in Spain thousand of years ago- connections between Spain and West Africa in the Neolithic.

Over the sands and far away: Interpreting an Iberian mitochondrial lineage with ancient Western African origins- QUOTE.  

OBJECTIVES:
There is an ongoing effort to characterize the genetic links between Africa and Europe, mostly using lineages and haplotypes that are specific to one continent but had an ancient origin in the other. Mitochondrial DNA has been proven to be a very useful tool for this purpose since a high number of putatively European-specific variants of the African L* lineages have been defined over the years. Due to their geographic locations, Spain and Portugal seem to be ideal places for searching for these lineages.

METHODS:
Five members of a minor branch of haplogroup L3f were found in recent DNA samplings in the region of Asturias (Northern Spain), which is known for its historical isolation. The frequency of L3f in this population (˜1%) is unexpectedly high in comparison with other related lineages in Europe. Complete mitochondrial DNA sequencing of these L3f lineages, as well phylogenetic and phylogeographic comparative analyses have been performed.

RESULTS:
The L3f variant found in Asturias seems to constitute an Iberian-specific haplogroup, distantly related to lineages in Northern Africa and with a deep ancestry in Western Africa. Coalescent algorithms estimate the minimum arrival time as 8,000 years ago, and a possible route through the Gibraltar Strait.

CONCLUSIONS:
Results are concordant with a previously proposed Neolithic connection between Southern Europe and Western Africa, which might be key to the proper understanding of the ancient links between these two continents.


-- Pardiñas et. al. 2014. Over the sands and far away: Interpreting an Iberian mitochondrial lineage with ancient Western African origins. Am J Hum Biol. 2014 Aug 11

 

 //prize winning links..  ///

EXCERPTS- from study

Thus, one can reasonably regard coalescent dates only as a rough estimate of the minimum arrival time of a founder lineage (Pereira et al., 2010). This would place our inferred transcontinental migration in the Early Neolithic, when several pastoralist societies of southern Spain and Northern Africa showed similar cultural traits and human contacts resulting from herding and fishing expeditions might have taken place over the Gibraltar Strait (Anderung et al., 2005; Straus, 2001).

The minimum boundary for its Iberian arrival might have to be pushed backwards, probably to dates near the 15,000 years ago shown in the eBSP analyses as the start of the demographic growth for the whole [L3f1b*] paragroup. Taking these findings into account, the broader timeframe described in the present work corresponds to a period of fluid population connectivity between Africa and Europe, as shown by other studies on mtDNA (Achilli et al., 2005; Cerezo et al., 2012; Malyarchuk et al., 2008).

The object in question is a small mesial (or mesio-distal) fragment of a harpoon with three short barbs on one edge. Found by Roche, in Level III of Taforalt Cave, the harpoon comes from a Final Iberomaurusian (a.k.a. “Oranian”) context, with abundant backed bladelets and backed points (total = 63%) and little else, except a few denticulates, endscrapers, retouched flakes and very few circle segments. Level III is bracketed by Ibero-Maurusian levels with radiocarbon dates: Level II at 10,800 ± 400 and Level VI at 12,070 ± 400 BP. Thus, the harpoon must be about 11,000 years old — contemporary with the Final Magdalenian in Mediterranean Spain. This harpoon is the only object of its kind known from the Maghreb (Roche, 1963), although harpoons are also found in the contemporaneous Natufian of the Levant and in the early Holocene “Mesolithic” of the Sudanese Nile and the lacustrine regions of East Africa. 

--------------------------------



Notes and comments: 

Stepping back for a moment: Would Neolithic arrival of this L3f branch have to have been by a trans-Gibraltar route? That’s the most parsimonious scenario, given its phylogeography and total absence (to date) in the observed set of early European farmer mtDNAs, but Fernández et al. 2014 do report that, of 15 successful mtDNAs from Tell Halula, Syria (Middle Pre-Pottery Neolithic B: 7500–7300 BC), one was to be classified as L3* (no finer assignment possible) [8].

If we trust Fernández and colleagues, we in fact have prehistoric (c. 4ka BP) records of other L* lineages in Spain: a possible record of L1b from Middle Neolithic Nerja, Málaga (2260 BC; individual NE-NAP; 16129A, 16264T, 16270T, 16278T, 16293G, 16311C: “L1b”, but possibly H11a) [9][10] and three apparent L2 (of five working samples) from Chalcolithic Tres Montes, Navarra (2130 BC; individuals TM-3, TM-11, TM-18: 16261T, 16278T, 16294T, 16309G). From the same group comes shakier suggestions of L3* (supposedly four of eight samples from this period) in Chalcolithic eastern Spain: Malpaso cave (individual 2MP4; 16218T, 16223T: “L3?”, possibly H20), Jovellús sepulchre (individual 1JO1; 16218Y, 16223Y: “L3?”, possibly H20), Assud de Villareal, 2nd sepulchre (individual 1AV1: 16218Y, 16223Y: “L3?”, possibly H20), Costa Lloguera sepulchre (individual COST3; 16223Y: “L3a?”, possibly R) [11]. It’s a true pity that from this material we only have HVR-I data, much of it not terribly specific.
====

Some references to Notes and Comments

[9] Simón, M.D., Cortés, M., Fernández, E., Lozano, M.C., Riquelme, J.A., Sanchidrián, J.L., Turbón, D., Vera, J.L., 2005. Aportaciones al conocimiento de la utilización de la Cueva de Nerja como necrópolis durante el Neolítico. In: Arias, P., Ontañón, R., García, C. (Eds.), III Congreso del Neolítico en la Península Ibérica: Monografías, I. IIPC, Santander, pp. 643–652.

[10] Fernández, E. (2005). Polimorfismos de DNA mitocondrial en poblaciones antiguas de la cuenca mediterránea. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Universidad de Barcelona, Spain.

[11] Gamba, C., Fernández, E., Oliver, A., Tirado, M., Baeza, C., López-Parra, A.M., & Arroyo-Pardo, E. (2008). Population genetics and DNA preservation in ancient human remains from Eastern Spain. Progress in Forensic Genetics 12 — Proceedings of the 22nd International ISFG Congress, 1(1): 462–464
-  ///


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Some studies find up to 50% African DNA markers in Iberia, in some eras - Mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms in ancient populations of the Mediterranean basin

(Polimorfismos de DNA mitocondrial en poblaciones antiguas de la cuenca mediterránea- 2005)
biblioteca.universia.net/html_bura/ficha/params/title/polimorfismos-dna-mitocondrial-poblaciones-antiguas-cuenca-mediterranea/id/3136593.html


Description: SUMMARY OF DOCTORAL THESIS
The origins of European populations have been addressed from different disciplines, highlighting the contribution of population genetics studies. Shuffle two moments in prehistory in which it has been possible to model the gene pool of populations in Europe: the spread of Neolithic and Palaeolithic period expansions. The ability to recover from bygone population genetics provides a unique opportunity to test the assumptions made in situ from other disciplines. We studied 197 samples from 115 dental and bone individuals 17 archaeological sites Sumerian Neolithic and Middle East, when Meroitic Nubia and Paleolithic era, post-Neolithic and Neolithic of the Iberian Peninsula. We obtained complete sequences of mitochondrial DNA of 244 bp of 35 different individuals, were compared with sequences from the same region of present individuals from 38 populations in Europe, Africa and Middle East. In phylogenetic reconstructions based on Reynolds distance groups of ancient samples are grouped together, separated from the rest of current populations. However, phylogenetic reconstructions made from the haplotypes of ancient and modern samples denote that although the majority of ancient mitochondrial variants are not present in current populations sampled, may relate more or less closely with them.

The composition of haplotypes and haplogroups of ancient samples from the Near East and the Iberian Peninsula differs markedly from that found in the current populations of these geographical regions. In the ancient Middle East show highlights in particular the absence of mitochondrial haplogroup J, U3, W and X, associated with the Neolithic expansion into Europe. This may be due either to the sample obtained is not old chronologically or geographically-representative populations of the Middle East that spread during the Neolithic well that these variants were not introduced in Europe during the Neolithic. In the ancient sample of the Iberian Peninsula highlights the presence of 50% of sub-Saharan lines. These lines may have been introduced during the Solutrean, the Mesolithic or Neolithic. This work also delved into various technical aspects of obtaining authentic ancient DNA and the influence of several variables in the preservation of genetic material.

ABSTRACT
The origins of the European Populations Studied extensively from Have Been Different disciplines. It is Thought That ancient demic expansions, like occurred After the Late Those Glacial Maximum or DURING the Middle East from neolithic diffussion to Europe. The Possibility to recover DNA from past Populations offers an unique Opportunity to test in situ These hypothesis. 197 It Were Analyzed teeth and bones from 115 individuos Archaeological Sites and 17 Different from Middle East and the Iberian Peninsula. It WAS possible to recover mitochondrial DNA sequences 244pb-35 from Different Individuals. They Were 38 Compared to sequences from European, African and Middle Eastern Populations present-day. Phylogenetic Reconstructions from Reynolds genetic distance Showed That ancient samples clustered together, extant from Clearly Separated Populations.

However, based phylogenetic Reconstructions on ancient and modern mitochondrial haplotypes Showed That ancient haplotypes are related to extant ones. Haplotype frequencies and haplogroup in samples from the ancient Middle East and the Iberian Peninsula are Different from Those Clearly present in the Same Geographical Nowadays regions. Haplogroups related to J neolithic expansion to Europe, U3, W and X-are absent in ancient middle eastern sample. There are two possible Explanations to this fact. First, It Could Be That the ancient samples possible Analyzed wont be representative of the Middle Eastern Populations That expanded the neolithic. Second, It Could Be That Those haplogroups Also possible wont Have Been made to them in Europe associated with expansions to neolithic demic. At This work It Were Also Examined technical Several Aspects related to the obtention of genuine ancient DNA and the Influence of Different variables in DNA preservation.

--Fernandez et al. 2005. Mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms in ancient populations of the Mediterranean basin
 
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curvaceous connections.. si?


Prehistoric Iberia- connections with the African world

 "This work develops a hypothesis on the origin of a cultural complex which was established in the southwest quadrant of the Iberian Peninsula around the transition from the IV to III millennium BC*. The rupture observed between the cultural groups studied herein and those proceeding them in southern Iberia can also be explained by other mechanisms not migratory movements but important accelerations in the change of human behavior. In addition, the close similarities with other peri-Mediterranean cultures may be due to convergence phenomena. The diffusionist explanation that we are presenting has previously been put forward based only on archeological arguments (Escacena et al. 1988). If we recall again the hypothesis that accredits the cultural dispersion to population movements, it is in order to offer an understanding for other studies, above all, genetic and linguistic ones, that support these connections of the North African world with the Iberian Peninsula during the recent prehistoric period." 

--J. L. Escacena Carrasco 2000. Applications of Evolutive Archeology: Migrations from Africa to Iberia in the Recent Prehistory Prehistoric Iberia. 2000, pp 125-162 //

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 More recent DNA data on ancient African movement to Spain- Hernandez 2015- 2014


New mtDNA study shows movement from Africa into Spain in Early Holocene- some 10,000 years ago- long before any Phonecian, Roman, Arab or colonial era

"Determining the timing, identity and direction of migrations in the Mediterranean Basin, the role of “migratory routes” in and among regions of Africa, Europe and Asia, and the effects of sex-specific behaviors of population movements have important implications for our understanding of the present human genetic diversity. A crucial component of the Mediterranean world is its westernmost region. Clear features of transcontinental ancient contacts between North African and Iberian populations surrounding the maritime region of Gibraltar Strait have been identified from archeological data. The attempt to discern origin and dates of migration between close geographically related regions has been a challenge in the field of uniparental-based population genetics..

To this end, in the present work we have screened entire mtDNA sequences belonging to U6, M1 and L haplogroups in Andalusians —from Huelva and Granada provinces—and Moroccan Berbers. We present here pioneer data and interpretations on the role of NW Africa and the Iberian Peninsula regarding the time of origin, number of founders and expansion directions of these specific markers. The estimated entrance of the North African U6 lineages into Iberia at 10 ky correlates well with other L African clades, indicating that U6 and some L lineages moved together from Africa to Iberia in the Early Holocene. Still, founder analysis highlights that the high sharing of lineages between North Africa and Iberia results from a complex process continued through time, impairing simplistic interpretations. In particular, our work supports the existence of an ancient, frequently denied, bridge connecting the Maghreb and Andalusia."
--Hernández et al 2015. Early Holocenic and Historic mtDNA African Signatures in the Iberian Peninsula: The Andalusian Region as a Paradigm. PLoS ONE 10(10)



Most visible ancient African influences in Spain seem more to the west in some mtDNA studies. Waterborne migrations across the Mediterranean was quite possible and documented long before any Arab or Moorish appearance

"The attractive prehistory and history of Andalusia, the widest and most populated region of Spain, makes its present-day human population a prominent objective to detect scenarios of population substructure and to examine the expected impact of African and other Mediterranean populations on the Iberian gene pool. Consistently with the geographical proximity between southern Spain and Africa, previous published studies have obtained results that show evidences of African-linked mtDNA lineages among Andalusians as well as high levels of diversity,either analyzing regional general samples [22, 23, 24] or focusing on other inland territories within the region [16]. Our mitochondrial data presented here will give stronger evidences for a more visible African influence in the west than in the east of Andalusia.. Western Andalusians (from Huelva, present study) register the highest frequencies (14.6%) of African lineages reported until now in the Iberian Peninsula and all over the European continent.

"Some researchers (e.g. [53, 54], among others) have proposed a sea route as the most probable way for Neolithic entrance in Iberia. This process was phased, using sea navigation and boats big enough to transport men, women, and the ‘Neolithic package’ in a movement probably originated in the Gulf of Genoa. Similar methods may have been used between Andalusia and Morocco. Altogether, these events suggest that the interactions between Moroccan and Andalusian populations have been old, continuous, in both ways and with different origins... In the sub-Saharan L macrohaplogroup network (Figure 4B), lineage L1b is characterized by the relevant case number contained in the core. According to [50], its estimated coalescence time is 9.7 kya, so its expansion out of Africa should have taken place during or after Neolithic age. The L1b star-like shape indicates a population expansion, and those migrations which contributed to shape it were not so recent, thus Muslim expansion or more recent migrations accounting for this would not be the main causal reason."
--Hernández et al 2014. Human maternal heritage in Andalusia (Spain.. BMC Genetics 15:11




[b]More Archelogical and climate data reveals ancient African movement to Europe (SOuthern Iberia), contributing to the development of the Neolithic in Western Europe [/b]
QUOTE:

"New data and a review of historiographic information from Neolithic sites of the Malaga and Algarve coasts (southern Iberian Peninsula) and from the Maghreb (North Africa) reveal the existence of a Neolithic settlement at least from 7.5 cal ka BP. The agricultural and pastoralist food producing economy of that population rapidly replaced the coastal economies of the Mesolithic populations. The timing of this population and economic turnover coincided withmajor changes in the continental and marine ecosystems, including upwelling intensity, sea-level changes and increased aridity in the Sahara and along the Iberian coast. These changes likely impacted the subsistence strategies of the Mesolithic populations along the Iberian seascapes and resulted in abandonments manifested as sedimentary hiatuses in some areas during the Mesolithic–Neolithic transition. The rapid expansion and area of dispersal of the early Neolithic traits suggest the use of marine technology. Different evidences for a Maghrebian origin for the first colonists have been summarized. [b]The recognition of an early North-African Neolithic influence in Southern Iberia and the Maghreb is vital for understanding the appearance and development of the Neolithic in Western Europe. Our review suggests links between climate change, resource allocation, and population turnover." [/b]

--Cortés-Sánchez, Miguel Et al. 2012. The Mesolithic–Neolithic transition in southern Iberia. Quaternary Research (77): 221–234 (2012)

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Pre-Roman Italy- African connections long before any slave trade or Roman Empire..

"In the North, E3b1-M35 and J2-M172 show low frequencies but are more prevalent in the South, which has been interpreted to be a signal of the gene flow coming from Central European Neolithic farmers [17]. R1a1-M17 is rather rare, both in the North, where it probably originates from eastern Europe, and in the South, of possible Greek provenience [17].

The two Italian major islands, Sicily and Sardinia, show a different demographic history. The Y-chromosome variability of Sicily shares a common history with that of southern Italy, enriched by an additional Arab contribution, but also North African and Greek influences [18]. On the other hand, Sardinia has been considered to be a genetic outlier within Europe showing clear signals of founder effects;

Autosomal ancestry in Italy
A panel of 52 AIMs was genotyped in 435 Italian individuals in order to estimate the proportion of ancestry from a three-way differentiation: sub-Saharan Africa, Europe and Asia. Structure analyses allowed us to infer membership proportions in population samples, and these proportions can be graphically displayed, as in Figure 2. This analysis indicated that Italians have a BASAL PROPORTION of sub-Saharan ancestry that is higher (9.2%, onaverage) than other central or northern European populations (1.5%, on average). The amount of African ancestry in Italians is however more comparable to (but slightly higher than) the average in other Mediterranean countries (7.1%).

The origin of sub-Saharan African mtDNAs in Europe (including Italian samples) has been recently investigated by Cerezo et al. [81]; the results indicate that a significant proportion of these lineages could have arrived in Italy more than 10,000 years ago; therefore, their presence in Europe does not necessarily date to the time of the Roman Empire, the Atlantic slave trade or to modern migration."


– Francesca Brisighelli-. 2012. Uniparental Markers of Contemporary Italian Population Reveals Details on Its Pre-Roman Heritage

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curvy skeletal evidence.. :)

Ancient skeletal material in Italy points to African connections

"The Paglicci site is located on the southern slope of the Gargano Promontory (Apulia, Southern Italy) it is composed of the present-day cave and a rock shelter that, in the past, was part of the same cave-system. The site has been continuously excavated since the early 60s: from 1961 to 1963 from 2001 to present days by A. Ronchitelli (University of Siena), The 12m thick sequence uncovered inside the cave yielded archeological, paleontological and anthropological remains spanning from Lower Midd1e Paleoolithic (Acheulean, Early Mousterian) to Final Epigravettian, comprising Aurignacian and Gravettian. Among the several human remains uncovered in Paglicci,the most important are two Gravettian burials that are amongst oldest in Europe.

The two individuals from these burials, Paglicci 12 (Mezzcna and Palma dt Cesnola, 1972), a juvenile male, which age at death was around 12 years old (PA12) and Paglicci 25 (Mezzena and Palma dt Ccsnoia, 1989-90), a young adult female around 20 years (PA25). Over the years they have been the subject of general anthropological studies (Mallegni and Palmadi Cesnola, 1994; Mallegni ct aI., 1999), but with the development of new analytical techniques in paleooanthropology, the morphological affinities of the two specimens are being reconsidered. The main objective is to contribute to the understanding of the first peopling of Europe by Homo sapiens looking at various aspects of these populations such as their morphological characteristics, health status, and cultural background.

The present study focuses on the morphometric affinities of the mandibles of PA 12 and PA25 which were compared to 78 Old world modern human specimens. The mandibles were described thanks to 22 landmarks and were analyzed through a geometric morphometries analysis predefined groups: extant Europeans (N:=14, Romania and England), extant Asians (N:=14, China and Indonesia), extant Africans (N:=13, Nigeria), Neolithic Europeans (N:=13, Loisy-en~Brie, France), Neolithic Africans (N:=13, Hassie-el-Abiod from Mali; Gamble's Cave 5, F from Kenya) and Paleolithic specimens (N:= 11; Oberkassell and 2 (German), Ohalo II (Israel), Abri Pataud (France), Predmosd 3 and 4 and Brno II (Czech Republic), Combe~Cape!le (France), Grimaldi 5 (Italy), Qafzeh 9 and Skhlll V (Israel). ….to assess the morphological affinities of the Paglicci mandibles which were introduced a posteriori in the DFA. The classification results indicate that apart from the Neolithic Europeans all groups overlap in their morphology. It is especially difficult to distinguish between extant Europeans and Asians, while extant Africans present a slightly different morphotype which is closer to Neolithic Africans. These specimens;.lS weI! as the Palaeolithic mandibles show a much more robust morphology.

Both Paglicci mandibles are classified as Paleolithic specimens by the DFA. PA 12 is especially similar to the Grimaldi 5 mandible which also belonged to a juvenile individual while PA25 is more similar to Combe-Capelle and Oberkassell. This morphological affinity indicates that PA25 mandible is very robust despite the fact that it is a female individual. Finally, both Paglicci mandibles are also similar to African Neolithic specimens. Contrary to the European Neolithic mandibles, the African Neolithic specimens show close morphological affinities with the Palaeolithic fossils. This could indicate A DIFFERENT MIGRATION PATTERN BETWEEN EUROPE AND AFRICA DURING LATE PALEOLITHIC AND NEOLITHIC."

--Aurclicn Mounier1 2014. The Gravettian mandibles from Grotta Paglicci (Apulia, Italy): a geometric morpbometrics study

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intriguing limbs....

Skeletal analysis shows tropical limb proportions in ancient Italy populations indicating African background and presence

"Note that there is little overlap between the European Neanderthals and any of the Gravettian individuals. Only the pathological Dolni Vestonice 15 and Paglicci 25 fall within the Neanderthal range.. The summary statistics for the radius length/trunk height index are found in Table 12.4. HEre too the recent Europeans are characterized by relatively low index values, reflective of shorter radii, and the sub-Saharan Africans are characterized by higher indices, indicative of longer radii. The Neanderthals fall very near the recent European mean, and the Gravettian sample mean falls just below the recent sub-Saharan African mean.

With the exception of Dolni Vestonice 13, the other Dolni Vestonice individuals appear more "African-like" in their relative radius lengths...

Figure 12.6 is a graphical representation of the radius length/trunk height indices among the fossils. Once again, the European Neanderthals evince the lowest indices, and for this index there is no overlap between Gravettian sample amd the Neanderthals- even the pathological DOnli Vestonice 15 individual falls below their range. Dolni Vestonice 15 has the lowest radius/trunk height index of the Gravettian sample, and DOlni Vestonice 3 and 13 fall toward the low end of the GRavettian range; as with the humerus, Paglicci 25 and Barma GRande 2 evince shorter radii, than do the remainder of the nonpathological Gravettian sample..."


--Erik Trinkaus, Jiøí Svoboda. 2005. Early modern human evolution in Central Europe: the people of Dolní Vestonice..

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Greece shows similar indications of ancient African presence like Spain and Italy

African Haplogroup E appears in several European populations notably Greeks and other southern Europeans, in the Balkans zone. QUOTE:

"Haplogroup E originated in Africa. This is true also of its European subhaplogroup E3b. In Africa, this sub- group has four separate peak areas; these are in Southern Africa, Morocco, Northern Libya, and the Horn of Africa. The last two bear witness to the route from northwest Africa through Anatolia to Europe. (The frequencies are relatively high also in Anatolia.) In Europe, Haplogroup E3b has peak values (about 25%) in Albania; about equally high frequencies are also typical of some other parts of the Balkans and southern Italy."
--Kalevi Wiik (2008) Where Did European Men Come From? Jrnl Gen Genealogy, 4:35-83

QUOTE:

"Underhill et al. (2001) showed that the frequency of the YAP+ Y haplogroup commonly referred to as haplogroup E or (III) is relatively high (about 25%) in the Middle East and Mediterranean. This haplogroup E is the major haplogroup found in sub-Saharan Africa (over 75% of all Y chromosomes). Specifically, Europeans contain the E3b sub-haplogroup, which was derived from haplogroup E in sub-Saharan Africa and currently is distributed along the North and East of Africa.. It appears that the 171 AIM test subject of this chapter may recognize the haplogroup E character as West African."
--T. Frudakis. 2008. Molecular photofitting: predicting ancestry and phenotype using DNA

QUOTE:
"In the case of Cretan E3b3-M123 (M34) chromosomes, they most likely signal East African or Middle-Eastern gene flow rather than European, due to the scarcity of this lineage in the latter area.19, 26 Similarly, the presence of E3b-M35* individuals in the Heraklion Prefecture population could probably be attributed to an East-African or North-African contribution."
FROM: Fig 2 --Martinez et al. (2007). Paleolithic Y-haplogroup heritage predominates in a Cretan highland plateau. Eu Jrl Hu Gen. 15, 485-493



DNA study detects African elements in southern Europeans like Sardinians- QUOTE:

"Sardinia appears to be a particularly appropriate test case to evaluate the extent to which surnames are informative in identifying the history of Y-chromosome haplogroups. As the other European populations, almost all the Sardinian Y chromosomes belong to haplogroups E-M35, I-M170, G-M201, J-12f2 and R-M269. Haplogroups E, G and J, which are believed to have an African (E) or Middle Eastern (G and J) origin and entered Europe through different migrations,30,34,35 show frequencies in the same range as other Mediterranean populations."
--Zei et al 2003. From surnames to the history of Y chromosomes: the Sardinian population as a paradigm. European Journal of Human Genetics (2003) 11, 802-807
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Southern Europeans show gene flow from several areas including Africa-
QUOTE:


"Southern European groups (SEE, SCE, SDN, SWE, and BA) on the other hand derive ancestry from African and Near Eastern World Regions. In particular, ancestry from groups most similar to contemporary populations from in and around the Levant (lev; which we define as the World Region containing individuals from Syria, Palestine, Lebanon, Jordan, Saudi, Yemen, and Egypt) is present across Italy (SCE), Sardinia (SDN), France and Spain (SWE), and Armenia (IA; Figure 2B). Interestingly, North (nafII) and West (waf) African ancestry is also seen entering Southern Europe, suggesting a key role for the Mediterranean in supporting gene flow back into Europe [8, 26, 27]. Dates for the influx of this admixture are broad and generally fall within the first millennium CE (Figure 3B) although are more recent in BA and SWE, including French (frenc24: 728 CE [424–1011 CE]) and Spanish (spani27: 1042 CE [740–1201 CE]; spani9: 668 CE [286–876 CE]) clusters, consistent with migrations associated with the Arabic Conquest of the Iberian peninsula [8, 11, 28] and earlier movements in and around Italy [29]."
--George B.J. Busby, et al 2015. [b]The Role of Recent Admixture in Forming the Contemporary West Eurasian Genomic Landscape. Current biology: CB (Impact Factor: 9.57). 09/2015; 25(19).



Summary - ancient Sub-Saharan presence in Europe long before any historic era..



SUMMARY

The data above is separate from the ancient Out Of Africa migrations of the Paleolithic that brought tropical Africans and tropical African variants to Europe. These present another record, for another time. This one  documents clear traces of  ancient "sub-Saharan" African presence in pre-historic Europe using modern DNA, cranial and skeletal data. These influences are long before any historic period like the Roman Empire, and long before any modern "colonial" or slave trade era. They occur especially in southern Europe and affect Spain, Italy and the Greek/Aegean area, as documented herein by credible mainstream scholars.




LINKS TO OTHER POSTS:

Go with the flow 3- more DNA and cranial studies show ancient African migration to, or African presence in ancient Europe
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2016/04/go-with-flow-3-more-dna-and-cranial.html

Go with the flow 2- African gene flow into Europe in various eras
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2015/11/go-with-flow-2-african-gene-flow-into.html


DNA studies show African movement to Europe from very ancient times
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2015/09/dna-studies-show-african-movement-to.html

Guilt3- Why the "white privilege industry" is not all there
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2015/09/guilt3-why-white-privilege-industry-is.html

Guilt2- Media collaborates with guilt mongers - or how to play the white victim card
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2015/09/guilt2-media-collaborates-with-guilt.html

How Obama plays on white guilt
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2015/08/how-obama-plays-upon-white-guilt-hilary.html

Blacks oppose free speech- more ramshackle "research" from "the East"..
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2015/08/blacks-oppose-free-speech-ramshackle.html

Hands off the Confederate flag
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2015/06/hands-off-confederate-flag.html

Despite much more wealth than blacks, whites collect about the same rate of welfare and are treated more generously
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2015/06/despite-much-more-wealth-than-blacks.html

African "boat people" ushering in European demographic decline
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2015/05/african-boat-people-ushering-in.html



The forgotten Holocaust- King Leopold's "Congo Free State" - 10 million victims
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2015/04/the-forgotten-holocaust-10-million-in.html


Are violent minorities taking over California and the West?
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2015/04/are-violent-minorities-taking-over.html

Presidential hopeful Ben Carson meets and Greeks
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2015/03/presidential-hopeful-ben-carson-meet.html

Contra "ISIS" partisans, there have been some beneficial effects of Christianity
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2015/03/contra-isis-partisans-there-are-some.html


The social construction of race, compared to biology- Graves
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2015/02/the-social-construction-of-race_8.html

Why HBD or hereditarianism lacks credibility
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/10/why-hbd-or-hereditarianism-lacks.html

Leading Scientists criticize hereditarian claims
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/08/leading-scientists-criticize.html

Thai me down - Thais fall behind genetically related southern Chinese, Tibetans below genetically related East Asians like Koreans and other Chinese
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/08/thai-me-up-thai-me-down.html

Time for liberals to respect "the south" ... in a way of speaking.. the south of Egypt that is..
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/08/time-for-liberals-to-respect-south-in.html

Irony 2: touted High IQ "G-men" cannot reproduce themselves 
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/07/irony-2-higher-iqs-correlated-with_25.html



Unz and Sowell: Unz debunking Lynn's IQ and Wealth of Nations. Sowell debunking the Bell Curve
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/07/unz-and-sowell-unz-debunking-lynns-iq.html

Irony 1: touted High IQ types are more homosexual, more atheist, and more liberal (HAL)
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/06/irony-high-iqs-produce-more-atheists.html


Elite white universities discriminate against Asians using reverse "affirmative action"
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/06/elite-white-universities-discriminate.html

Deteriorating state of white America
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/05/deteriorating-state-of-white-america.html


Racial Cartels (The Affirmative Action Propaganda machine- part 2
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/05/the-affirmative-action-propaganda.html

Hereditarian's/HBD's "Great Black Hope"
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/04/blog-post.html



Exploding nonsense: the 10,000 Year Explosion
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/03/exploding-nonsense-review-of-cochran_8.html


We need "rational racism"- Convicted felon Dinesh Dsouza becomes his own test case
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/01/we-need-rational-racism-proponent.html

The Affirmative Action Propaganda Machine- part 1
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/01/the-affirmatve-action-propaganda.html

Two rules for being "really" black- no white wimmen, no Republican
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/01/to-be-really-black-you-cant-have-white.html

The Axial age reconsidered
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/01/the-axial-age-reconsidered.html

Cannibal seasonings: dark meat on white
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2013/12/i.html

"Affirmative Action" in the form of court remedies has been around a long time- since the 1930s- benefiting white union workers against discrimination by employers
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2013/09/affirmative-action-as-term-appears-in.html

Mugged by reality 1: White quotas, special preferences and government jobs
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2013/06/mugged-by-reality-1-white-quotas.html


Lightweight enforcement of EEO laws contradicts claims of "flood" of minorities "taking jobs"
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2013/06/blog-post.html

Railroaded 3: white violence and intimidation imposed quotas
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2013/06/railroaded-3-white-violence-and.html

Railroaded 2: how white quotas and special preferences blockade black progress...
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2013/06/railroaded-2-thow-white-quotas-and.html

Railroaded 1: How white affirmative action and white special preferences destroyed black railroad employment...
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2013/06/railroaded-how-white-affirmative-action.html

Affirmative action: primary beneficiaries are white women...
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2011/04/quick-regime-kill-hopes-in-libya.html

7 reasons certain libertarians and right-wingers are wrong about the Civil Right Act
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2012/05/7-reasons-libertarians-may-be-wrong.html

Assorted "Role models" debunked- hypocritical hereditarianism
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2009/11/blog-post_5570.html


Social philosophy of Thomas Sowell
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2011/07/social-philosophy-of-thomas-sowell.html


Additional gene flow data... :)


Bogus "biodiversity" theories of Kanazawa, Ruston, Lynn debunked
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2010/09/blog-post.html

JP Rushton, Michael Levin, Richard Lynn debunked. Weaknesses of Jared Diamond's approach. 
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2010/04/blog-post_1818.html

In the Blood- debunking "HBD" and Neo-Nazi appropriation of ancient Egypt
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2009/11/blog-post_29.html

early Europeans and middle Easterners looked like Africans. Peoples returning or "backflowing" to Africa would already be looking like Africans
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2010/05/blog-post_1754.html

 Ancient Egypt: one of the world's most advanced civilizations- created by tropical peoples
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2010/09/blog-post_06.html

Playing the "Greek defence" -debunking claims of Greeks as paragons of virtue or exemplars of goodness
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2013/03/playing-greek-defence-review-of-thornton.html

Quotations from mainstream academic research on the Nile Valley peoples
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2010/04/blog-post_9251.html


http://egyptsearchreloaded.proboards.com/thread/15/basic-database-nile-valley-studies



OTHER LINKS
Race, IQ, and Wealth: What the facts tell us about a taboo subject By Ron Unz


HBD EVOLUTION, BRAIN SIZE AND NATIONAL IQ CLAIMS DEBUNKED
Evolution, brain size, and the national IQ of peoples ... - Jelte Wicherts 2010
http://wicherts.socsci.uva.nl/wichertsPAIDrejoinder.pdf
------------------------------------

Why national IQs do not support evolutionary theories of intelligence - WIcherts, Borsboom and Dolan 2010
Personality and Individual Differences 48 (2010) 91-96
http://wicherts.socsci.uva.nl/wicherts2010.pdf
----------------------------- -------------

Are intelligence tests measurement invariant over time? by JM Wicherts - ?2004
 --Dolan, Wicherts et al 2004. Investigating the nature of the Flynn effect. Intelligence 32 (2004) 509-537
http://www.iapsych.com/iqmr/fe/LinkedDocuments/wicherts2004.pdf
-------------------------------------------

LYNN AND VANHAVEN'S IQ AND THE WEALTH OF NATIONS DEBUNKED
---------------- -------

www.anth.uconn.edu/faculty/mcbrearty/Pdf/McB%20&%20Brooks%202000%20TRTW.pdf

------------------------

Race and other misadventures: essays in honor of Ashley Montagu... By Larry T. Reynolds, Leonard Lieberman

http://books.google.com/books?id=5DLrgG_MflgC&pg=PA190&dq=r-+k-+selection+races&cd=1#v=onepage&q=r-%20k-%20selection%20races&f=false
--------------------------------

Race and intelligence: separating science from myth. By Jefferson M. Fish. Routledge 2002. See Templeton's detailed article referenced above also inside the book

http://books.google.com/books?id=t9OdPPLIgMAC&pg=PA64&dq=r-+k-+selection+races&cd=7#v=onepage&q=r-%20k-%20selection%20races&f=false
------------------------

http://www.ogiek.org/indepth/what-they-mean.htm
---------------- -------

Oubre, A (2011) Race Genes and Ability: Rethinking Ethnic Differences, vol 1 and 2. BTI Press
For summary see: http://www.skeptic.com/eskeptic/05-02-18/
---------------- -------

http://www.dartmouth.edu/~chance/course/topics/curveball.html

-----------------------------------------------------------

--S OY Keita, R A Kittles, et al. "Conceptualizing human variation," Nature Genetics 36, S17 - S20 (2004)
http://www.nature.com/ng/journal/v36/n11s/pdf/ng1455.pdf


--S.O.Y. Keita and Rick Kittles. (1997) *The Persistence ofRacial Thinking and the Myth of Racial Divergence. AJPA, 99:3
http://www.councilforresponsiblegenetics.org/pageDocuments/WAURRSZQOE.pdf
---------------- -------

HBD RACE EVOLUTION CLAIMS DEBUNKED BY GENETICISTS
Alan Templeton. "The Genetic and Evolutionary significnce oF Human Races." pp 31-56. IN: J. FiSh (2002) Race and Intelligence: Separating scinnce from myth.

IQ claims and miscellaneous data
HBD RACE AND INTELLIGENCE CLAIMS DEBUNKED
 J. FiSh (2002) Race and Intelligence: Separating science from myth.

------------------------------------------





MORE HBD DEBUNKING
-------------------------------- ---------------------



Oubre, A (2011) Race Genes and Ability: Rethinking Ethnic Differences, vol 1 and 2. BTI Press
----------------------------------------------

Krimsky, S, Sloan.K (2011) Race and the Genetic Revolution: Science, Myth, and Culture
-------------------------------


Wicherts and Johnson, 2009. Group differences in the heritability of items and test scores
http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/early/2009/04/24/rspb.2009.0238.full


http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2013/06/coming-apart-can-murrays-down-with.html


"SELECTION FOR"- "SELECT FOR" HDB CLAIMS DEBUNKED- "SELECTION" IS NOT THE ONLY KEY FORCE DRIVING CHANGE
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2012/12/demic-diffusion-notes-and-tropical.html

http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2012/05/7-reasons-libertarians-may-be-wrong.html

http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2012/08/cro-magnons-are-us-debunking-claims.html

http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/03/exploding-nonsense-review-of-cochran_8.html



--Joseph Graves, 2006. What We Know and What We Don’t Know: Human Genetic Variation and the Social Construction of Race
http://raceandgenomics.ssrc.org/Graves/

J. Kahn (2013) How a Drug Becomes "Ethnic" - Yale Journal of Health Policy, Law and Ethics, v4:1
http://digitalcommons.law.yale.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1072&context=yjhple

------------------------------------ -----------------

http://evolution.binghamton.edu/evos/wp-content/uploads/2012/04/PageProofs-Graves_race.pdf

-------------------------------------------- ----------------------------



other links



Evolution, brain size, and the national IQ of peoples ... - Jelte Wicherts 2010
http://wicherts.socsci.uva.nl/wichertsPAIDrejoinder.pdf
------------------------------------

Why national IQs do not support evolutionary theories of intelligence - WIcherts, Borsboom and Dolan 2010
Personality and Individual Differences 48 (2010) 91-96
http://wicherts.socsci.uva.nl/wicherts2010.pdf
----------------------------- -------------

Are intelligence tests measurement invariant over time? by JM Wicherts - ?2004
 --Dolan, Wicherts et al 2004. Investigating the nature of the Flynn effect. Intelligence 32 (2004) 509-537
http://www.iapsych.com/iqmr/fe/LinkedDocuments/wicherts2004.pdf
-------------------------------------------

LYNN AND VANHAVEN'S IQ AND THE WEALTH OF NATIONS DEBUNKED
---------------- -------

www.anth.uconn.edu/faculty/mcbrearty/Pdf/McB%20&%20Brooks%202000%20TRTW.pdf

------------------------

Race and other misadventures: essays in honor of Ashley Montagu... By Larry T. Reynolds, Leonard Lieberman

http://books.google.com/books?id=5DLrgG_MflgC&pg=PA190&dq=r-+k-+selection+races&cd=1#v=onepage&q=r-%20k-%20selection%20races&f=false
--------------------------------

Race and intelligence: separating science from myth. By Jefferson M. Fish. Routledge 2002. See Templeton's detailed article referenced above also inside the book

http://books.google.com/books?id=t9OdPPLIgMAC&pg=PA64&dq=r-+k-+selection+races&cd=7#v=onepage&q=r-%20k-%20selection%20races&f=false
------------------------

http://www.ogiek.org/indepth/what-they-mean.htm
---------------- -------

Oubre, A (2011) Race Genes and Ability: Rethinking Ethnic Differences, vol 1 and 2. BTI Press
For summary see: http://www.skeptic.com/eskeptic/05-02-18/
---------------- -------

http://www.dartmouth.edu/~chance/course/topics/curveball.html

-----------------------------------------------------------

--S OY Keita, R A Kittles, et al. "Conceptualizing human variation," Nature Genetics 36, S17 - S20 (2004)
http://www.nature.com/ng/journal/v36/n11s/pdf/ng1455.pdf


--S.O.Y. Keita and Rick Kittles. (1997) *The Persistence ofRacial Thinking and the Myth of Racial Divergence. AJPA, 99:3
http://www.councilforresponsiblegenetics.org/pageDocuments/WAURRSZQOE.pdf
---------------- -------

HBD RACE EVOLUTION CLAIMS DEBUNKED BY GENETICISTS
Alan Templeton. "The Genetic and Evolutionary significnce oF Human Races." pp 31-56. IN: J. FiSh (2002) Race and Intelligence: Separating scinnce from myth.


HBD RACE AND INTELLIGENCE CLAIMS DEBUNKED
 J. FiSh (2002) Race and Intelligence: Separating science from myth.

------------------------------------------




MORE HBD DEBUNKING
-------------------------------- ---------------------

Oubre, A (2011) Race Genes and Ability: Rethinking Ethnic Differences, vol 1 and 2. BTI Press
----------------------------------------------

Krimsky, S, Sloan.K (2011) Race and the Genetic Revolution: Science, Myth, and Culture
-------------------------------


Wicherts and Johnson, 2009. Group differences in the heritability of items and test scores
http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/early/2009/04/24/rspb.2009.0238.full


http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2013/06/coming-apart-can-murrays-down-with.html


"SELECTION FOR"- "SELECT FOR" HDB CLAIMS DEBUNKED- "SELECTION" IS NOT THE ONLY KEY FORCE DRIVING CHANGE
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2012/12/demic-diffusion-notes-and-tropical.html

http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2012/05/7-reasons-libertarians-may-be-wrong.html

http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2012/08/cro-magnons-are-us-debunking-claims.html

http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/03/exploding-nonsense-review-of-cochran_8.html



--Joseph Graves, 2006. What We Know and What We Don’t Know: Human Genetic Variation and the Social Construction of Race
http://raceandgenomics.ssrc.org/Graves/

J. Kahn (2013) How a Drug Becomes "Ethnic" - Yale Journal of Health Policy, Law and Ethics, v4:1
http://digitalcommons.law.yale.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1072&context=yjhple

------------------------------------ -----------------

http://evolution.binghamton.edu/evos/wp-content/uploads/2012/04/PageProofs-Graves_race.pdf

-------------------------------------------- ----------------------------