Thursday, July 20, 2017

Sowell 3- new data shows backward tropical evolution? Wealth and Poverty- An International Perspective in Trump era




Part 1 of our Sowell trilogy reviewed the book "Intellectuals and Race". Part 2 looked at a slice of the recent book- Wealth and Poverty: An International Perspective. This piece, part 3 of our trilogy, reviews the rest of "Wealth, Poverty and Politics: An International Perspective" - specifically that part regarding alleged "tropical development." It is an article of faith in numerous right wing, "HBD" or "hereditarian" quarters, including the arguments of assorted right wing scholars like Lynn, Rushton, Vanhannen, etc, that "harsh "conditions in temperate or colder zones promoted time urgency and discipline compared to "lagging" tropical peoples. But is this really so? The argument appears in Sowell's book  "Wealth, Poverty and Politics: An International Perspective," and when put to the test, comes up short.   Let's get down to business.

The current writer is a supporter of SOME of Thomas Sowell's work, but over the past 15 years it has lost much of its bite, and too often, seems a re-thread of earlier stuff. Sowell's latest book- Wealth, Poverty and Politics: An International Perspective, continues in his usual hereditarian/libertarian vein, illustrated nicely by his discussion of the old hereditarian saw about the greater goodness and virtue of cold climate folk versus those slower-witted tropical peoples with their pineapples and bananas. Yes, Thomas Sowell actually does talk about "pineapples and bananas." Now where have we seen such bogus imagery befo? 

His basic argument- which is typical of the racialist "hereditarian" or HBD crowd, is to claim so-called "life-threatening" challenges faced by people in the temperate zones, who have to do all this terribly hard work to stave off winter starvation. Due to this, the good cold climate folk develop a sense of "urgency" and "discipline." Meanwhile back there in the tropics- they have so much food "spontaneously supplied by nature" - you know, like "bananas and pineapples" - they never really got on the ball. 

This kind of dubious reasoning is rampant among the "HBDers," "hereditarians" and allied crowd of conservatives, right-wing libertarians and racialist distorters of various sorts, ensconced in a well-funded network of rightist think tanks and venues. Among them are not simply random bloggers off the Internet but well educated and published academics such as JP Rushton and Richard Lynn. Their work is intended to be taken seriously. Typical is Richard Lynn and Tatu Vanhanen, in their 2002 book, IQ and the Wealth of Nations. In that tome, the authors advance a farrago of distortion including chastising Africans for "failing" to domesticate species such as the African Cape buffalo, one of the hugest, fiercest ungulates in the world. It should be noted that in Asia, similar fierce species have not been domesticated either. People opted for milder tempered beasts to domesticate. But only Africans are condemned as "backward" with seemingly "low mental capacities" for the eminently sensible choice of avoiding large, unpredictable, dangerous beasts that are apt to attack nearby humans.

Sowell strikes up a similar note in his own way, himself being part of the well funded network of think tanks such as the Hoover Institution. But he somewhat contradicts his own writing. After several pages regaling the reader about how terrible the tropics is, and how good the temperate zones are climatically and geographically, he then shifts to the standard "we have it so tough here in the cold" argument of the hereditarians. Let's look at it- quote:

QUOTE:
"The life-threatening challenge that dominated the temperate zones of the world for millennia was growing enough food during the limited spring and summer months to last through the cold winter months. It was an inescapable necessity, for sheer physical survival, to begin plowing or otherwise breaking up the land for planting when the ground thawed in the spring. This meant that peoples living where seasons changed drastically had to develop a sense of urgency about time, and the discipline to adjust to its requirements- qualities that were not nearly so necessary in places where food could be grown year round, in addition to the availability of much food spontaneously supplied by nature in many tropical lands. The other inescapable necessity of the temperate zones, where seasons are so different, was saving food to store for the winter. This required not only the discipline of saving, but also the conversion of perishable foods like milk and fruit into storable foods like cheese and jam. Here again, this was not such a pressing necessity in the tropics."
--Thomas Sowell, 2015. Wealth, Poverty and Politics: An International Perspective, p.40


Cold climate for fun and profit. But the above is dubious. As shown by his own multiple pages on geography and climate, the temperate zones were hardly areas of dire starvation and distress. For one thing the temperate zone has a favorable climatic axis allowing easy movement of key plant an animal domesticates. It also has more fertile soils than the tropics, and even though some growing seasons were short, favorable soils, snow melt irrigation, lesser pest problems etc often allow multiple crops in a single season. And who says cold climate paragons had this oh so much greater "sense of urgency" compared to the tropical peoples? Hell, urgency is job one in many tropical agricultural zones which have short growing seasons due to the onset of frequent droughts. Torrential rains leaching nutrients out of already poorer soils also shortens tropical growing seasons with crop damage and flooding. Tropical people had to hustle on the agricultural front before all these negatives piled on. So since when is "urgency" and "discipline" in growing seasons any monopoly of supposedly more virtuous cold climate folk?


Bananas anyone? And tropical people did not have have time to sit around with "bananas and pineapples." One can just sense the obsolete sources the aging Sowell is using, as well as his own failure to assimilate new data. Six areas of blunt reality of African tropical agriculture illustrate this:

--More difficult crop storage
--More devastating and destructive pests
--Greater chance of severe droughts and flooding
--Lower fertility of tropical soils
--Fluctuating growing seasons
--Erratic weather with more famine threat

Crop storage is more challenging in the tropics- there being no natural refrigerant of snow and ice to help. But people worked hard at it- fighting off a massive series of pests, pests that did not die off during the winter season as in so-called "harsh" temperate zones. This meant elaborate storage pits and silos, not as large as the barns of northern Europe to be sure, but then again with the tsetse fly decimating draft animals and cattle, there was no call for massive hay storage capacity, or animal stables in many tropical African areas.

And with no natural refrigerant close at hand, tropical Africans had to hustle to process their crops into a form survivable under hot, humid conditions, and the next drought-induced famine threat. Root crops for example- a key staple- have to be pounded into flour or paste, dried and stored, as do the "bananas" and other starchy staples. If stored whole, storage bins and silos had to be carefully designed so that they could "cure" properly and not be destroyed by the heat and fungal infection. In some cases toxic poisons had to be removed from staple crops- like cassava (manioc) before it could be eaten. And stored foods had to be checked frequently to guard against spoilage amid the heat and pests. Grain staples of more fertile Eurasian soils by contrast, have relatively lower moisture content at maturity, and long term storage is easier. But even with storage systems some food had to be eaten quickly. There was no time for "ease" with "bananas and pineapples." Urgent work was needed under the rainfall regime- with quick growing crops alternated with longer term ones in a continual struggle to keep the food flowing before the next drought, or nutrient leaching torrential rain. Where is this so called "easy" life racial hereditarians allege by tropical Africans?



Spontaneous nonsense: Tropical peoples in Africa had plenty of work requiring "urgency" and "discipline" with no time to wait around for Sowell's laughable food, "spontaneously" supplied by nature. Tropical Africans have never enjoyed all this "spontaneous" food white wingers allege. As one expert puts it: "environmental conditions are frequently restrictive and fragile. Most tropical soils have low fertility due to water erosion, leaching, and acidification in more humid climates and to high temperatures and wind soil erosion in dryer ones (Bennema, 1977; Lal and Miller, 1990). Warm humid and subhumid regions are exposed to explosive pest populations, flooding, and crop storage and transportation problems (National Research Council, 1993), while semiarid regions suffer frequently from prolonged droughts (Okigbo, 1990)."
(--John H. Vandermeer - 2002 Tropical Agroecosystems - Page 12)


And who says things are so dire in temperate zones? Temperate growing seasons can last as long as 8 months per year, depending on annual temperature and elevation. Along the southern coast of California for example the growing season lasts 365 days. Seasons are also affected by temperature and some crops like the massively important wheat grains only  need a modest temperature in place to do its thing. Wheat, will sprout at just 5 degrees Celsius (40 degrees Fahrenheit)- meaning it can get the job done in weather rather chilly for humans - undermining the dire picture painted of frantic struggles due to cold. These facts are easily accessible (see something as basic as National Geographic on growing seasons- [  https://www.nationalgeographic.org/encyclopedia/growing-season/ ]) but Sowell, who spends over 40 pages on geography, conveniently skips them, an omission that serves a certain ideological function -namely to build up simplistic "hereditarian" claims.


Urgency? What urgency? The tropical farmer is an expert on "urgency." As far as poor soils for example- he adapted the reasonable method of shifting cultivation- which again, required considerable hustle in land clearing, planting and then moving, to stay ahead of declining soil fertility and inevitable drought and flooding. He not only has "jungle" to deal with but a massive number of pests and parasites hindering his enterprise, more than the temperate farmer, who is blessed with winters that kill off numerous pests and more predictable snow-melt water for irrigation. And on top of the hindrances caused by drought and its opposite- torrential rain and floodings, huge parts of tropical Africa also includes deserts, and growing seasons in deserts are very short, much shorter than the temperate zone seasons enjoyed by "urgent" farmers therein. As one source notes- "Famines can be traced to such erratic weather patterns as high (causing floods) and low (causing droughts) precipitation in climate zones that otherwise would be expected to produce successful crop yields... Yet climatic and especially rain variability makes tropical agriculture often a risky business, and many famines in the tropics are related to drought." The racialist would attribute the  frequent tropical famines to "genetic deficits" but such simpleton reasonings fail to capture the realities of life and climate in many tropic areas.

Did all the above apply to ALL areas  of tropics in Africa at ALL times? Of course not. There were zones that could be more favorable- on mountain slopes blessed with plenteous rain and volcano-fed soil for example. But the general pattern in tropical Africa is not "easy natives" with "bananas and pineapples" but a blunt regime of backbreaking work, urgency and discipline to stay ahead of an often unfavorable environment. Even given areas where grain could be grown as yet another example, the climate in humid tropical areas also means that significant loss of seed weight- and thus less yield to the African farmer. Given readily available facts on such matters, why do so many people persist in distorting and misrepresenting the real picture on the ground? Simple- such cynical misrepresentation and distortion provides the ideological foundations of a right-wing "libertarian" or "HBD" project. This project may vary by person, group or place, but its heart is race, and cynically disparaging and distorting the history, culture and achievements of tropical peoples, particularly Africans. Enablers like Sowell wittingly or unwittingly, help along this project.



I know what you are thinking pilgrim. What about the "easy" tropical or sub-tropical agriculture enjoyed by the dusky natives of he Nile Valley in Africa?

This is a variant of the "easy tropical life" narrative favored by the "hereditarian" and right-wing crowd. At first glance, the Nile Valley seems a perfect case. Why all the natives had to do was wait for the waters to rise, throw some seeds in the rich silt, and retire to drink beer (or eat pineapples and bananas) until harvest. ONly that this vriant of the narrative is bogus, like the rest. Far from being "easy", even in the favored Nile Valley, agriculture was hard work. The land had to be tilled and divided into basins-(decrue or basin agriculture, a technique often seen in other parts of Africa). Canals, levees and dams had to be dug, constructed and maintained to capture the flood waters in the basins. Spillways and siphon canals had to be made and maintained to siphon off excess water as the flood receded. And the whole system had to be calibrated carefully, including water levels and seasonal indicators such as the positioning of various astronomical data to ensure a smooth planting season. Failure to be prepared, could mean hunger or starvation. Note how scholar Bruce Trigger above says that the mere silt of the Nile was not the key to farming. Nile silt yielded a small level of nutrients. What kept Egyptian fields in business was fallow periods, crop rotation, and the manure of tens of thousands of farm animals, managed for just that purpose, among others. Oh and on top of all this, there were quite a few building projects going on..

There was no "easy time" to be had in the agriculture of the ancient Nile Valley of Africa, and 15-16% of Egypt lies in the topical belt by the way, with overlap of tropical Africans and cultures into the sub-tropics. Curiously many right-wingers seem to think that Africans are static folk, huddled conveniently behind some sort of fixed, climatic "apartheid" barrier. But alsas, this mythology does not hold. Africans DO move around- from sub-tropics to tropics, and within those tropics are numerous diverse micro-climes. The hot dry air of deserts within the tropics for example easily yields narrow noses. No "race mix" is needed or invoked to explain away such routine human variation. So much for "easy" tropical narratives...




Allegedly "harsh"cold climate Europe rather dubious- things were on balance quite favorable..

In closing, 2 items of scholarship will suffice- as they readily debunk much of the propaganda put forward in support of that project. First, in the historic era when all was supposedly "nasty and brutish" Europe was actually quite favored environmentally. Alleged "harsh" environments are less than advertised. Second, in the PRE-HISTORIC era, alleged "harshness" is also dubious. If anything, the temperate zone was quite favorable to humans on several counts. Even the northern reaches had plenty of fishing and aquatic resources in place,, as we shall see. But let's start with the historic era.


Historic era- favorable conditions not "life-threatening"- As one scholar says about Europe of the 5th century - QUOTE:

"Some of the most important lay in nature itself: a reasonably good  climate, rich soils, broad rivers, and accessible coastlines. As Map 2.1 shows, the Western European heartland consists of a huge plain of rich soil that fans north from the Pyrenees and the Alps into England and across France and Germany into Scandinavia. Its weather varies greatly but i generally bracing without being intimidating- a happy compromise between languid, narcotic mildness of southern California and the freezing winters of Maine Northwestern Europe's dependable year-round rainfall an the fertile soils of its numerous river valleys encouraged agricultural productivity, so much so that a first-century Greek geographer could describe the region as 'producing in perfection all the fruits of the earth necessary for life.'

            The climate was kind to farmers in Western Europe, but so too was the land. Crossing the European heartland are several low, mineral-rich mountain ranges, a broad swathe of rich loam for farming, and a remarkable network of broad rivers fed by year-round rains. These rivers connected inland settlements with the sea and with each other, moving people, news, goods and ideas. Most of Europe's major cities were built on riverbanks- Paris, London, Milan, Cologne and many others- so that even though they lay far from the sea, their docks received goods from many places then dispersed them to even more. Europe's long, irregular coastline was a further stimulus to commerce, with not only its huge bays and peninsulas, but also its accessible offshore islands such as Sicily, Sardinia, Britain, and Ireland."
--J. Bennett and C. Hollister. 2006. Medieval Europe: A Short History. p31

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PRE-HISTORIC ERA- again often favorable conditions- both as to rich hunting ground, grasslands and rich aquatic resources even in colder zones like the Swedish Iron Gates region


But let's go even further back. It is often alleged that "harsh" conditions in the temperate zone hark back to Cro-magnon/caveman times- with such conditions causing "evolutionary" racial changes - you know - pale cold climate whites/Asians evolved good, dark/black tropical people evolved bad and so on- hell- let's quit pretending and cut to the "racial" bottom line. But as scholar Roger Lewin below shows, even back in the Paleolithic Europe, the oft claimed "harsh environmental conditions" were not as "harsh" as proponents claim. Even before agriculture living was good with plenty of rich hunting grounds, and rich aquatic resources from fish to shellfish in lake, river and ocean. And these resources were available all year round -

QUOTE:
  Data 1- alleged "harsh" ancient European environment is bogus- conditions were actually favorable in many respects:
"About 35,000 years ago, modern human populations apparently entered Western Europe for the first time and found what one pre-historian has described as 'a virtual Garden of Eden.' Southwest France and northern Spain formed a rich environmental mosaic that supported a profusion of animal and plant life. The diversity of animal life is reflected in carvings and cave paintings of the Upper Paleolithic Period, spanning from 35,000 to 10,000 years ago. at various times, mammoth, rhinoceros, bison, wild horses, wild oxen, red deer, reindeer, ibex and many other species abounded... the Upper Paleolithic people of Western Europe probably enjoyed a greater degree of social-complexity than is projected by the simplistic hunter-gatherer model. "They had a rich diversity of resources, and a high degree of stability and predictability of these resources year to year."
-- Lewin, Roger (1988). In the Age of Mankind. Smithsonian. pp. 196-199

QUOTE:
Data 2- Famous Lascaux area of pre-historic France shows a favorable environment, not much different from other hunting areas on other continents, with plenty of climate variability, contradicting claims of alleged "harsh" venues.

"The physical world inhabited by the painters and engravers of Lascaux was unlike anything known today.. Sea levels plummeted more than 300 feet; dry land connected not only North America and Asia but Britain and continental Europe. Southern Europe was cold, dry and covered with rich grasslands. In regions with some topographical relief, like southwest France and northern Spain, vegetation was more varied; sheltered and exposed localities created different micro-climates. Paleolithic animal life in this area was abundant, much more like the plains of modern Africa than anything seen in Europe today. Herds of horses, bison, and aurochs roamed the grasslands, along with reindeer and ibex in the hills...
To judge from discoveries of pollen and seed at some sites, and from engravings at others, peoples of Lascaux and their contemporaries ate blueberries, raspberries, acorns, hazelnuts, and other tubers, nuts, berries and grasses.
The last Ice Age was by no means a period of unrelieved cold, millennium after millennium. Temperatures fluctuated, sometimes coming close to today's balmy interglacial climes, and the animal and plant communities fluctuated in concert with them. Warmer climes brought woodland and forest where only open grassland had existed previously. At the same time, the horses and bison- animals of the plains, were replaced with red deer, wild boar and other confines of a forest habitat.. "
-- Lewin, Roger (1988). In the Age of Mankind. Smithsonian. pp. 144


Data 3- Long before the coming of the Neolithic revolution from the Near East via the Natufians and others, ancient cold-adapted Europeans had more than enough opportunity to pioneer plant and animal domestication. Wild species of the cow, horse, pig and goat were all well known. Wild ancestors of important crops- such as wheat-like spelt variants, and chick peas were also in place. What then took the alleged cold-adapted "pace-setters" so long to advance human civilization?

".. as critics of the climate theory point out, the world has gone through many climate fluctuations in the 100,000 years since modern humans occupied the Old World. Opportunities for cultivation and animal husbandry surely existed earlier than the Neolithic. Yet no evidence has emerged that any plant or animal domestication occurred before this time. More specifically, no potential climatic trigger can be identified in many of those cases in which development of domestication can be documented sufficiently to reveal information about local climatic conditions."
-- Lewin, Roger (1988). In the Age of Mankind. Smithsonian. pp. 193



Data 4- Even colder northern climes show a rich resource base and substantial material life. Such resources, particularly the water-based ones of the ocean, river and lake, were relatively stable and predictable, providing plenty of food - hardly the picture of alleged cold-climate peoples "deprivation" in "unforgiving" glacial environments, as alleged by JP Rushton, Michael Levin, Satoshi Kanazawa et al..

"Similarities appear in societies in which there are rich maritime or lakeside resources from the far north to the Mediterranean. In the far northern latitudes, where for four months of the year the sun does not set, the icy cold but resource-rich northern sea was the focus of settlements with pit houses, with people using elaborate seagoing vessels in their specialised focus on marine foods, probably associated with seal hunting (Bjerck 1995, Bjerck, this volume). Further south, other structured settlements echo the theme of marine or lakeside focus. At Tagerup in Sweden, large houses were constructed in a 'village; at the confluence of two rivers with permanent structures such as jetties and moorings for boats.. coastal and lakeside regions also provide evocative glimpses of societies for whom the sea and water played an important economic and symbolic role. We see richly symbolic pendants of amber and animal teeth, wooden artefacts such as bows, decorated paddles, canoes, and leisters in evidence from submerged sites in the Baltic.. Riverine resources also appear to have been particularly influential in the development of settlements such as Lepenski Vir and Vlasac in the Iron Gates... we see an apparently 'sacred' site at Lepenski Vir, comprising homes with plaster floors, carved figurines, and neonates interred under the floors." [pg 8]

"The Iron gates contain some of the largest concentration of Mesolithic burials in Europe. Burials have been recorded from at least eleven sites, and four of these, Lepenski Vir, Padina, Schela Cladovei and Vlasac each contained very large numbers of graves." [pg 241]
"Even Grahame Clark, excavator of Star Carr and pioneer and champion of Mesolithic studies in Britain, was forced to concede with evident reluctance in 1952 that the archaeological evidence for the coastal Mesolithic peoples of Northwest Europe hardly contradicted the notion of 'a low level of culture' (Clark 1952:63).. Extrapolating the origins of social complexity to certain contexts in Mesolithic Europe marked a powerful departure from ideas of small, marginalised groups apparently 'going nowhere'.. 'Complexity' was built on dense, productive, coastal resources that were available all year." [pg 4]

"Young (2000b:1) concluded that the discipline was still 'waiting for the great leap forwards'. A long-standing story of Mesolithic hunter-gatherers so immersed in their environments and nature, both ecologically and ideologically as to be almost socially inert seems to retain a strong hold on our imaginations." [pg 5]
-- G. N. Bailey (2008) Mesolithic Europe. Cambridge University Press. pp 8, 241, 4, 5


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Summary and bottom line- the tropical civilizations of Africa debunk numerous right-wing claims

As shown above, the standard right-wing propaganda memes about "backward" tropical evolution, including "time urgency" and such, don't hold much water when examined critically. Ecen more devastating for suh claims is the development of advanced civilizations in the tropical or near tropial zones, PRECEDING development in allegedly more "advanced" cold climate zones. Ancient Egypt which includes both the tropical zone and sub-ropical zone illustrates this (What? You didn't think that Egypt was in Africa? lol). It could be argued that various civilizations in Europe were not all cold climate but also benefited from sub-tropical conditions, such as inthe Mediterranean. This is true, but nobody denies the Mediterranean civilizations are European, whereas the right  wing propaganda double standard is to deny Egypt as African. But such propaganda fails under critical scrutiny. As shown by credible scholars, the following summary points re applicable. Detailed discussion of that scholarship is shown here.


1) Southern Egypt, from which the genesis of Ancient Egypt civilization sprang, lies in the tropical zone, from the Tropics of Cancer to Capricorn with the Tropic of cancer bisecting Southern Egypt at 23°26'N 25°0'E. The rest of Egypt is very similar, and is placed by scholars in the immediately adjacent subtropical or arid tropic zone, NOT the cold-climate zones of Europe or Asia.
(Thompson and Perry, 1997; Griffiths, 1976, Troll and Pfaffen 1964, Koppen-Geiger classification 2006)


2) The peoples of ancient Egypt, in the aforementioned zones, show the clear limb proportion characteristics of tropically adapted people, and MORE closely resemble other tropically adapted Africans on the continent, than Europeans or Middle Easterners.
(Raxter and Ruff 2008, Zakrewski 2003, 2007; Holliday et al, 2003, Kemp, 2005)


3) Undermining claims of cold-climate or skin color primacy for civilization, the great ancient Nile Valley civilization arose from the 'darker' more tropical south, NOT the cold climate or cool climate Mediterranean, Europe or Asia.
(Clark, 1982; Shaw 1976, 2003; Bard, 2004; Vogel, 1997; Kemp 2005)


4) The ancient Egyptians in their tropical and sub-tropical/arid tropic environment, did not need cold climate people to develop their distinct culture. Several strands of culture from religion to material living put the Egyptians closer to nearby Africans than to cold-climate Mediterraneans, Europeans or Asiatics.
(Keita, 1996, 2004; Yurco 1989, 1996; Williams, 1980; Britannia 1984; Wilkinson 1999; Wendorf, 2001)




5) European/Asiatic cold climate or light skin inspiration was unneeded by the tropically adapted Africans of ancient Egypt. They peopled the Nile Valley from the Sahara and the Sudan, and ancient Egypt is part of a tropical African lineage. Indigenous development sprang from a long tradition going back deep into the Sahara and the Sudan.
(Lovell, 1999; Lefkowitz, 1993, 1996; Keita 1993, Irish 2006)


6) DNA studies show the Egyptians link with other Africans via Haplogroup "E" to a much greater extent than cold climate Mediterraneans, Europeans or Middle easterners.
(Keita 2004, 2008; Richards 2003; Battaglia, 2008; Cruciani 2007; Lucotte 2003; Stevanovitch et al 2004)


7) African people have a range of physical variation and don't need any inspiration or mixes from cold-climate/light skinned Europeans or Asiatics to explain why. Features like narrow noses, thin lips, height etc are all indigenous to Africa. Africa has both the highest phenotypic diversity and the highest genetic diversity in the world and don’t need cold-climate/light skin inspiration for that established fact. All cold-climate/light skinned Europeans and Asiatics are SUBSETS of original African diversity. Modern DNA studies find even though some African peoples look different, they are genetically related through the PN2 transition clade of the Y-chromosome. Thus light-skinned African Libyans and dark-skinned Zulus are all genetically related Africans, even though they don't look exactly the same.
(Keita 2004; Tishkoff 2002, Ely et al, 2006, Stevanovitch 2004)


8) African peoples are the most diverse in the world whether analyzed by DNA or skeletal or cranial methods. The peoples of the Nile Valley vary but they are still related. The people most related ethnically to the ancient Egyptians are other Africans like Nubians not cold-climate/light skinned Europeans or Asiatics.
(Keita 1996; Rethelford, 2001; Bianchi 2004, Yurco 1989; Godde 2009)

More backward tropical developments.. 

9) Not needing cold-climate/slight-skinned inspiration, the peoples of ancient Egypt are more closely linked with fellow tropical Africans in terms of cranial studies than with Europeans or Asiatics. Analysis of skeletal and cranial remains reveals that the ancient Egyptians of the early Dynastic and pre-Dynastic phases, link closer to nearby Saharan, Sudanic and East African populations than Mediterranean and Middle Eastern peoples. Greeks, Romans, Hyskos, Arabs and others were to appear later in Egyptian history. Craniometric studies generally place ancient Upper Egyptian populations closer to the range of tropical Africans in the Nile Valley and East Africa than to Mediterraneans, or Middle Easterners.
(Keita 1990, 1993, 1996, 2004; Hiernaux 1975; Froment 2002; Kemp 2005)


10) Comparatively recent (in evolutionary terms) Europeans and Asiatics LOOKED LIKE tropical Africans with dark skin and other features, before cold-climate adaptation changed them. Light skin color is a RECENT development for Europeans and Asiatics. The foundations of civilization in terms of key animal and plant domesticates, and associated technology in Europe and Asia were thus laid by these dark-skinned migrants from Africa, who resembled today's Africans, undermining claims of the efficacy of white skin in laying the basic foundations or in building advanced civilizations such as that built by the tropically adapted peoples of the Nile Valley.
(Jablonski 2000; Brace 2005; Hanihara 1996; Rethelford 2000)






LINKS TO OTHER POSTS:


Sowell 3- new data shows backward tropical evolution? Wealth and Poverty- An International Perspective in Trump era
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2017/07/sowell-3-new-data-shows-backward.html

Sowell 2- Wealth, Poverty and Politics- International Perspective - Trump era to bring these issues into sharper focus?
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2017/07/sowell-2-wealth-poverty-and-politics.html

Sowell- Liberal intellectuals and hard questions about race differences- Trump era may force them to focus?
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2017/07/sowell-liberal-intellectuals-and-hard.html


Trump properties discriminated against black tenants lawsuit finds
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2016/07/trump-properties-discriminated-against.html

Stealing credibility- Dinesh D'souza has prison epiphany- after hanging with the homies- Hallelujah Hilary!
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2016/05/straining-credibility-dinesh-dsouza-has.html

Shame on you, and your guilt too- A review of Shelby Steele's 'Shame'
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2016/05/a-review-wealth-poverty-and-politics.html


Go with the flow 3- more DNA and cranial studies show ancient African migration to, or African presence in ancient Europe
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2016/04/go-with-flow-3-more-dna-and-cranial.html

Go with the flow 2- African gene flow into Europe in various eras
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2015/11/go-with-flow-2-african-gene-flow-into.html


DNA studies show African movement to Europe from very ancient times
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2015/09/dna-studies-show-african-movement-to.html

Guilt3- Why the "white privilege industry" is not all there
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2015/09/guilt3-why-white-privilege-industry-is.html

Guilt2- Media collaborates with guilt mongers - or how to play the white victim card
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2015/09/guilt2-media-collaborates-with-guilt.html

How Obama plays on white guilt
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2015/08/how-obama-plays-upon-white-guilt-hilary.html

Blacks oppose free speech- more ramshackle "research" from "the East"..
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2015/08/blacks-oppose-free-speech-ramshackle.html

Hands off the Confederate flag
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2015/06/hands-off-confederate-flag.html

Despite much more wealth than blacks, whites collect about the same rate of welfare and are treated more generously
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2015/06/despite-much-more-wealth-than-blacks.html

African "boat people" ushering in European demographic decline
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2015/05/african-boat-people-ushering-in.html



The forgotten Holocaust- King Leopold's "Congo Free State" - 10 million victims
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2015/04/the-forgotten-holocaust-10-million-in.html


Are violent minorities taking over California and the West?
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2015/04/are-violent-minorities-taking-over.html

Presidential hopeful Ben Carson meets and Greeks
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2015/03/presidential-hopeful-ben-carson-meet.html

Contra "ISIS" partisans, there have been some beneficial effects of Christianity
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2015/03/contra-isis-partisans-there-are-some.html


The social construction of race, compared to biology- Graves
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2015/02/the-social-construction-of-race_8.html

Why HBD or hereditarianism lacks credibility
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/10/why-hbd-or-hereditarianism-lacks.html

Leading Scientists criticize hereditarian claims
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/08/leading-scientists-criticize.html

Thai me down - Thais fall behind genetically related southern Chinese, Tibetans below genetically related East Asians like Koreans and other Chinese
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/08/thai-me-up-thai-me-down.html

Time for liberals to respect "the south" ... in a way of speaking.. the south of Egypt that is..
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/08/time-for-liberals-to-respect-south-in.html

Irony 2: touted High IQ "G-men" cannot reproduce themselves 
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/07/irony-2-higher-iqs-correlated-with_25.html



Unz and Sowell: Unz debunking Lynn's IQ and Wealth of Nations. Sowell debunking the Bell Curve
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/07/unz-and-sowell-unz-debunking-lynns-iq.html

Irony 1: touted High IQ types are more homosexual, more atheist, and more liberal (HAL)
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/06/irony-high-iqs-produce-more-atheists.html


Elite white universities discriminate against Asians using reverse "affirmative action"
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/06/elite-white-universities-discriminate.html

Deteriorating state of white America
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/05/deteriorating-state-of-white-america.html


Racial Cartels (The Affirmative Action Propaganda machine- part 2
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/05/the-affirmative-action-propaganda.html

Hereditarian's/HBD's "Great Black Hope"
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/04/blog-post.html



Exploding nonsense: the 10,000 Year Explosion
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/03/exploding-nonsense-review-of-cochran_8.html


We need "rational racism"- Convicted felon Dinesh Dsouza becomes his own test case
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/01/we-need-rational-racism-proponent.html

The Affirmative Action Propaganda Machine- part 1
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/01/the-affirmatve-action-propaganda.html

Two rules for being "really" black- no white wimmen, no Republican
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/01/to-be-really-black-you-cant-have-white.html

The Axial age reconsidered
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/01/the-axial-age-reconsidered.html

Cannibal seasonings: dark meat on white
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2013/12/i.html

"Affirmative Action" in the form of court remedies has been around a long time- since the 1930s- benefiting white union workers against discrimination by employers
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2013/09/affirmative-action-as-term-appears-in.html

Mugged by reality 1: White quotas, special preferences and government jobs
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2013/06/mugged-by-reality-1-white-quotas.html


Lightweight enforcement of EEO laws contradicts claims of "flood" of minorities "taking jobs"
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2013/06/blog-post.html

Railroaded 3: white violence and intimidation imposed quotas
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2013/06/railroaded-3-white-violence-and.html

Railroaded 2: how white quotas and special preferences blockade black progress...
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2013/06/railroaded-2-thow-white-quotas-and.html

Railroaded 1: How white affirmative action and white special preferences destroyed black railroad employment...
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2013/06/railroaded-how-white-affirmative-action.html

Affirmative action: primary beneficiaries are white women
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2011/04/affirmative-action-primary.html

7 reasons certain libertarians and right-wingers are wrong about the Civil Right Act
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2012/05/7-reasons-libertarians-may-be-wrong.html

Assorted "Role models" debunked- hypocritical heriditarianism
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2009/11/hbd-debunked-debunking-hypocritical.htmll


Social philosophy of Thomas Sowell
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2011/07/social-philosophy-of-thomas-sowell.html


Additional gene flow data... :)


Bogus "biodiversity" theories of Kanazawa, Ruston, Lynn debunked
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2010/09/blog-post.html

JP Rushton, Michael Levin, Richard Lynn debunked. Weaknesses of Jared Diamond's approach. 
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2010/04/blog-post_1818.html

In the Blood- debunking "HBD" and Neo-Nazi appropriation of ancient Egypt
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2009/11/blog-post_29.html

early Europeans and middle Easterners looked like Africans. Peoples returning or "backflowing" to Africa would already be looking like Africans
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2010/05/blog-post_1754.html

 Ancient Egypt: one of the world's most advanced civilizations- created by tropical peoples
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2010/09/blog-post_06.html

Playing the "Greek defence" -debunking claims of Greeks as paragons of virtue or exemplars of goodness
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2013/03/playing-greek-defence-review-of-thornton.html

Quotations from mainstream academic research on the Nile Valley peoples
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2010/04/blog-post_9251.html


http://egyptsearchreloaded.proboards.com/thread/15/basic-database-nile-valley-studies



OTHER LINKS
Race, IQ, and Wealth: What the facts tell us about a taboo subject By Ron Unz


HBD EVOLUTION, BRAIN SIZE AND NATIONAL IQ CLAIMS DEBUNKED
Evolution, brain size, and the national IQ of peoples ... - Jelte Wicherts 2010
http://wicherts.socsci.uva.nl/wichertsPAIDrejoinder.pdf
------------------------------------

Why national IQs do not support evolutionary theories of intelligence - WIcherts, Borsboom and Dolan 2010
Personality and Individual Differences 48 (2010) 91-96
http://wicherts.socsci.uva.nl/wicherts2010.pdf
----------------------------- -------------

Are intelligence tests measurement invariant over time? by JM Wicherts - ?2004
 --Dolan, Wicherts et al 2004. Investigating the nature of the Flynn effect. Intelligence 32 (2004) 509-537
http://www.iapsych.com/iqmr/fe/LinkedDocuments/wicherts2004.pdf
-------------------------------------------

LYNN AND VANHAVEN'S IQ AND THE WEALTH OF NATIONS DEBUNKED
---------------- -------

www.anth.uconn.edu/faculty/mcbrearty/Pdf/McB%20&%20Brooks%202000%20TRTW.pdf

------------------------

Race and other misadventures: essays in honor of Ashley Montagu... By Larry T. Reynolds, Leonard Lieberman

http://books.google.com/books?id=5DLrgG_MflgC&pg=PA190&dq=r-+k-+selection+races&cd=1#v=onepage&q=r-%20k-%20selection%20races&f=false
--------------------------------

Race and intelligence: separating science from myth. By Jefferson M. Fish. Routledge 2002. See Templeton's detailed article referenced above also inside the book

http://books.google.com/books?id=t9OdPPLIgMAC&pg=PA64&dq=r-+k-+selection+races&cd=7#v=onepage&q=r-%20k-%20selection%20races&f=false
------------------------

http://www.ogiek.org/indepth/what-they-mean.htm
---------------- -------

Oubre, A (2011) Race Genes and Ability: Rethinking Ethnic Differences, vol 1 and 2. BTI Press
For summary see: http://www.skeptic.com/eskeptic/05-02-18/
---------------- -------

http://www.dartmouth.edu/~chance/course/topics/curveball.html

-----------------------------------------------------------

--S OY Keita, R A Kittles, et al. "Conceptualizing human variation," Nature Genetics 36, S17 - S20 (2004)
http://www.nature.com/ng/journal/v36/n11s/pdf/ng1455.pdf


--S.O.Y. Keita and Rick Kittles. (1997) *The Persistence ofRacial Thinking and the Myth of Racial Divergence. AJPA, 99:3
http://www.councilforresponsiblegenetics.org/pageDocuments/WAURRSZQOE.pdf
---------------- -------

HBD RACE EVOLUTION CLAIMS DEBUNKED BY GENETICISTS
Alan Templeton. "The Genetic and Evolutionary significnce oF Human Races." pp 31-56. IN: J. FiSh (2002) Race and Intelligence: Separating scinnce from myth.

IQ claims and miscellaneous data
HBD RACE AND INTELLIGENCE CLAIMS DEBUNKED
 J. FiSh (2002) Race and Intelligence: Separating science from myth.

------------------------------------------





MORE HBD DEBUNKING
-------------------------------- ---------------------



Oubre, A (2011) Race Genes and Ability: Rethinking Ethnic Differences, vol 1 and 2. BTI Press
----------------------------------------------

Krimsky, S, Sloan.K (2011) Race and the Genetic Revolution: Science, Myth, and Culture
-------------------------------


Wicherts and Johnson, 2009. Group differences in the heritability of items and test scores
http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/early/2009/04/24/rspb.2009.0238.full


http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2013/06/coming-apart-can-murrays-down-with.html


"SELECTION FOR"- "SELECT FOR" HDB CLAIMS DEBUNKED- "SELECTION" IS NOT THE ONLY KEY FORCE DRIVING CHANGE
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2012/12/demic-diffusion-notes-and-tropical.html

http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2012/05/7-reasons-libertarians-may-be-wrong.html

http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2012/08/cro-magnons-are-us-debunking-claims.html

http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/03/exploding-nonsense-review-of-cochran_8.html



--Joseph Graves, 2006. What We Know and What We Don’t Know: Human Genetic Variation and the Social Construction of Race
http://raceandgenomics.ssrc.org/Graves/

J. Kahn (2013) How a Drug Becomes "Ethnic" - Yale Journal of Health Policy, Law and Ethics, v4:1
http://digitalcommons.law.yale.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1072&context=yjhple

------------------------------------ -----------------

http://evolution.binghamton.edu/evos/wp-content/uploads/2012/04/PageProofs-Graves_race.pdf

-------------------------------------------- ----------------------------



other links



Evolution, brain size, and the national IQ of peoples ... - Jelte Wicherts 2010
http://wicherts.socsci.uva.nl/wichertsPAIDrejoinder.pdf
------------------------------------

Why national IQs do not support evolutionary theories of intelligence - WIcherts, Borsboom and Dolan 2010
Personality and Individual Differences 48 (2010) 91-96
http://wicherts.socsci.uva.nl/wicherts2010.pdf
----------------------------- -------------

Are intelligence tests measurement invariant over time? by JM Wicherts - ?2004
 --Dolan, Wicherts et al 2004. Investigating the nature of the Flynn effect. Intelligence 32 (2004) 509-537
http://www.iapsych.com/iqmr/fe/LinkedDocuments/wicherts2004.pdf
-------------------------------------------

LYNN AND VANHAVEN'S IQ AND THE WEALTH OF NATIONS DEBUNKED
---------------- -------

www.anth.uconn.edu/faculty/mcbrearty/Pdf/McB%20&%20Brooks%202000%20TRTW.pdf

------------------------

Race and other misadventures: essays in honor of Ashley Montagu... By Larry T. Reynolds, Leonard Lieberman

http://books.google.com/books?id=5DLrgG_MflgC&pg=PA190&dq=r-+k-+selection+races&cd=1#v=onepage&q=r-%20k-%20selection%20races&f=false
--------------------------------

Race and intelligence: separating science from myth. By Jefferson M. Fish. Routledge 2002. See Templeton's detailed article referenced above also inside the book

http://books.google.com/books?id=t9OdPPLIgMAC&pg=PA64&dq=r-+k-+selection+races&cd=7#v=onepage&q=r-%20k-%20selection%20races&f=false
------------------------

http://www.ogiek.org/indepth/what-they-mean.htm
---------------- -------

Oubre, A (2011) Race Genes and Ability: Rethinking Ethnic Differences, vol 1 and 2. BTI Press
For summary see: http://www.skeptic.com/eskeptic/05-02-18/
---------------- -------

http://www.dartmouth.edu/~chance/course/topics/curveball.html

-----------------------------------------------------------

--S OY Keita, R A Kittles, et al. "Conceptualizing human variation," Nature Genetics 36, S17 - S20 (2004)
http://www.nature.com/ng/journal/v36/n11s/pdf/ng1455.pdf


--S.O.Y. Keita and Rick Kittles. (1997) *The Persistence ofRacial Thinking and the Myth of Racial Divergence. AJPA, 99:3
http://www.councilforresponsiblegenetics.org/pageDocuments/WAURRSZQOE.pdf
---------------- -------

HBD RACE EVOLUTION CLAIMS DEBUNKED BY GENETICISTS
Alan Templeton. "The Genetic and Evolutionary significnce oF Human Races." pp 31-56. IN: J. FiSh (2002) Race and Intelligence: Separating scinnce from myth.


HBD RACE AND INTELLIGENCE CLAIMS DEBUNKED
 J. FiSh (2002) Race and Intelligence: Separating science from myth.

------------------------------------------




MORE HBD DEBUNKING
-------------------------------- ---------------------

Oubre, A (2011) Race Genes and Ability: Rethinking Ethnic Differences, vol 1 and 2. BTI Press
----------------------------------------------

Krimsky, S, Sloan.K (2011) Race and the Genetic Revolution: Science, Myth, and Culture
-------------------------------


Wicherts and Johnson, 2009. Group differences in the heritability of items and test scores
http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/early/2009/04/24/rspb.2009.0238.full


http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2013/06/coming-apart-can-murrays-down-with.html


"SELECTION FOR"- "SELECT FOR" HDB CLAIMS DEBUNKED- "SELECTION" IS NOT THE ONLY KEY FORCE DRIVING CHANGE
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2012/12/demic-diffusion-notes-and-tropical.html

http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2012/05/7-reasons-libertarians-may-be-wrong.html

http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2012/08/cro-magnons-are-us-debunking-claims.html

http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/03/exploding-nonsense-review-of-cochran_8.html



--Joseph Graves, 2006. What We Know and What We Don’t Know: Human Genetic Variation and the Social Construction of Race
http://raceandgenomics.ssrc.org/Graves/

J. Kahn (2013) How a Drug Becomes "Ethnic" - Yale Journal of Health Policy, Law and Ethics, v4:1
http://digitalcommons.law.yale.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1072&context=yjhple

------------------------------------ -----------------

http://evolution.binghamton.edu/evos/wp-content/uploads/2012/04/PageProofs-Graves_race.pdf


Sowell 2- Wealth, Poverty and Politics- International Perspective - Trump era to bring these issues into sharper focus?


Part 1 of our Sowell trilogy reviewed the book "Intellectuals and Race". This piece reviews Thomas Sowell's recent book - Wealth, Poverty and Politics: An International Perspective, and holds that:

-- Sowell adds little new to the subject but instead recycles old material
-- Attempts to add contemporary relevance such as incorporating some David Landes fall short
-- Sowell continues his cherry-picking approach, often ignoring or ducking contrary data and analysis
-- Focused on old material , but if an opportunity to bash "the liberals" arises, he is quickly contemporary
-- Some good detail and insights are included on the role of geography- ironically debunking "geneticism"


Previous instances of recycling. Now let's get down to bidniss. Like an aging musician  reissuing pieces of his back catalog for the fan base, Thomas Sowell pulls another  recycling job in his book Wealth, Poverty and Politics: An International Perspective, 2015. He did it previously with his 2011 tome called Intellectuals and Society where he basically deals with old news- the Stalin era, the Hitler era, "appeasement" by Chamberlain and so on. He has very little on what's happening now, in the contemporary era, circa the mid or late 2000s. And it is interesting what Sowell avoids in that book. His chapter on intelligence in that book for example deals mostly with stuff prior to, or around WW2, Carl Bingham circa the 1920s, along with Darwin, Galton, European immigrants to the US in the early 1900s, HL Mencken's eugenic and anti-black rantings, etc. But all this is quite dated. Mencken's racist rants for example are from 1937.

This is rather old news. What's happening NOW circa the 2000s? Who's making similar arguments NOW, in the contemporary era? Sowell avoids saying, and that is understandable. To discuss the "black inferiority" theme writings of the present day - folk like JP Ruston, Linda Gottfredson, Richard Lynn , Tatu VanHaven, Dinesh Dsouza, etc, would expose people who are fellow travelers, or fellow recipients of cash from right-wing, sometimes racist sources like the Pioneer Fund. Such contemporary right-wing types have a well funded network of conferences, books and Internet forums and websites, energetically propagating their particular party line- some quite influential like Charles Murray, and Dinesh D'souza. But Sowell maintains a convenient "politic silence" on what his contemporary right wing buddies are writing, despite a book claiming to examine the wide impact, including the damaging impact of intellectuals on society. Sowell is quick to bash "liberals" but when it comes to examining such work by his right wing fellow travelers, he is a convenient no-show.



Old news, yet again - Sowell's analysis of wealth and poverty internationally recycles old material but has little to say about contemporary issues

And the same pattern continues with this book. Basically it retreads arguments from his previous books, throws in a few new references from David Landes, and a few others, and repackages the whole claiming an "International Perspective." But most of the book has little to say about a contemporary international perspective on issues of wealth and poverty. Yes it is nice to read about German immigrants who were efficient farmers in birth 19th century US and Brazil, or Italian immigrant stone-working skills in the 1800s and early 1900s in the US and Argentina, but all this is old news he covered way back in the early 1980s in Sowell's books: Ethnic America (1981) and The Economics and Politics of Race (1983). There is relatively little new, or contemporary, save when opportunity arises to bash "the liberals."

Sowell tries to add contemporary relevance by pulling in a few references from David Landes to discuss wealth and poverty of nations, but they are rather too little, too late. As is typical with his cherry-picking approach, he often fails to discuss important factors that influence wealth and poverty internationally, including international trade, terms of that trade, the outsourcing of American manufacturing capacity to cheaper Third World locations, the impact of the global financial system and so on. The book has few references to key issues of international trade for example, nor does it discuss the international financial bodies that influence wealth and poverty in the Third World, such as the IMF, and its "stabilization" demands imposed on underdeveloped nations. Nor does he deal with the whole morass of international debt, including the negative manipulation of Third World economies by bankers and other Western financial or institutional players. Even David Landes in his 2006 book discusses the predatory manipulation of the more powerful West (in the form of the US) to exploit Latin America and create dependency. But Sowell not only skips this, but has little new as to analysis, or case studies, or data to bring to the table.

It could be argued that Sowell is focusing on various individual ethnic groups as he has done in previous work. OK, but even here there is little significant analysis of the contemporary era. Where for example is the detail on contemporary Asian immigrants, many having substantial levels of educational attainment, BEFORE coming to the US, much more than the peasant farmers of the 19th century? Where is the detail on African immigrants, some of whom (not all- some are refugees from Africa's many conflicts or environmental crises) bring substantial levels of education with them prior to arrival? It is true that Sowell does mention that in England, some children of low income African immigrants outperform native whites, in some schools, but how does this square with other data where the children of these immigrants lag behind native whites? And how does it square with some African immigrants in general bringing substantial educational levels prior to arrival in the UK or the US? Sowell does manage to work in sneering references to "the welfare state ideology" to explain the lag of the low income whites and US ghetto blacks, but predictably, has no credible data on alleged "welfare" effects to put on the table. He sneers then quickly moves on.

much multi, but few culti..


Meandering multi-cultists

Some of Sowell's claims are just plain shaky strawmen he sets up to "refute." For example he says- quote: " Multiculturalists today decry any recognition that some peoples have superior achievements or inferior achievementsat a given time and place, though it is blatantly clear that Greeks were far more advanced than Britons in ancient times and Britons were more advanced than Greeks in the nineteenth century." But predictably, he can give no credible example of these dastardly "multiculturalists." What multicultural author or school textbook for example goes about "denying" that ancient Greece was on several counts more advanced than ancient Britons? Key multicultural texts and writers do no such thing. They do note however that dichotomies such as "primitive" versus "civilized", or the automatic assumption that a Western source is better than a non-Western one, or automatic genuflections to the imperial "grandeur that was Rome" are simplistic and distorted ways of understanding the complexity of history, economics and human culture. They also advocate a more balanced recognition of the accomplishments of other peoples rather than the glorified or anointed icons of the West. Greek science and architecture for example owes several debts to Egyptian and Middle Eastern influences depending on time and place. The "glory that was Greece" did not spring out of a vacuum, as any credible contemporary historical text shows. Are there things that can be criticized by some multi-culturalists? Certainly, but lets deal with the issue honestly not present a one-sided view. 

Sowell along these lines also skips over the CONSERVATIVE or right wing version of multiculturalism, including the distorted textbooks on into the 1970s denigrating an distorting history and culture of minorities, and presenting a sanitized picture of white goodness, particularly in the South. Hence the Daughters of the Confederacy conservative activist group for decades dominated how the US Civil War would be presented- oh, not much to do with slavery, but rather "state's rights." But this is laughably circular. Exactly what was the key "states right" at issue? - slavery. But in Sowell's world, apparently only "the liberals" offend in such matters of distortion.




Cherry picking for good lickin' - the case of 'elites' and Griggs versus Duke

One of the problems with Sowell's work is his penchant to cherry pick items that fit his particular ideological axe to grind. while ignoring or sidestepping contrary data, or analysis. In other words, his is not always a balanced analysis. For example, Sowell criticizes the landmark US Supreme Court employment discrimination case- Griggs vs Duke Power decision that employers must validate tests that have which have a disparate impact on minority groups when those tests are 'unrelated to measuring job capability.' Sowell spins this as yet another imposition of distant third parties against sensible job performance rules. But this is cherry-picking while hiding the full context. Griggs vs Duke came into court in the first place, not because of "elites" "interfering" with the good people, but because the Duke Power Company, had discriminated against blacks for years, freezing them out of significant opportunities and promotions, no matter how qualified. This was quite beneficial to whites. Sowell of course does not mention how whites benefited.

Nor does he mention that it was soon after the landmark 1954 Brown vs Board decision, that Duke Co. suddenly implemented new educational requirements to move up for promotion even though some of these new impositions bore no direct relation to job performance. White workers for example were hired on and promoted prior, WITHOUT having to get a diploma. And when the new rules went into effect, Whites, who were already on the job, and already had enjoyed decades of "reserved," white only higher slots, were grand-fathered in, and did not have to meet the "new requirements." The impact of the new, seemingly "race neutral" rules was to freeze the existing system of white benefit and advantage in place, since many blacks, who might have been capable of particular jobs without needing any new layers of "requirements", now found themselves STILL frozen out of better slots and opportunities, for many did not meet allegedly "needed" new educational requirements. They were routed to the back of the line again despite whatever the Supreme Court might say.

In short, whites, already benefiting from decades of preferential treatment, were ushered or locked into the higher slots and opportunities- they had little to worry about- their privilege and profit were preserved. The detailed study by Robert Samuel Smith (2008) Race, Labor, and Civil Rights: Griggs Versus Duke Power and the Struggle for Civil Rights lays out many issues. As Smith notes-Quote: "White employees were hired into higher classifications without high school educations prior to the company instituting its high school policy in 1955. Workers in the Labor, Watchman and Coal handling Departments continued to be hired without the high school requirement, but only white worker received promotions before the [Civil Rights] Act."



Courts examined thousands of documents in detail and took testimony from witnesses, including the testimony of black workers directly affected by years of discrimination. It is not the picture of "elite" third parties handing down rulings from on high without knowing anything about what was happening on the ground. Even lower courts that ruled against the black plaintiffs, acknowledged the past discrimination and the present "white lock-in" results, but held that absent an EXPLICIT racial barrier as in the past, Duke Power's new seemingly "race neural" rules were allowable. Sowell does not criticize or dismiss these lower court rulings in favor of the corporate defendant. Nor does he criticize similar appeals court rulings, though it should be noted that the Griggs appeal panel did find discrimination against blacks. Before it went to the Supreme Court, a 3-panel appeal court reversed the lower court ruling in part- holding that while there was little explicit discriminatory intent Duke, residual discrimination arising from employment practices prior to Title 7 was NOT insulated from remedial action. And the appeals court did find that black employees prior to the 1955 new rules were victims of discrimination.

The appeals court, interestingly showed some of the company's manipulations such as "promotion" of black janitors. that still locked them down in the traditionally "colored" Labor Department. Interestingly again, it was after the lawsuit that Griggs somehow "found" some black workers with diplomas to hire. Before the lawsuit few such workers were apparently in existence, and Duke, again mysteriously, suddenly stopped restricting Negroes to the Labor Department. It is when Sowell comes up against a ruling he doesn't like, namely the unanimous Supreme Court holding, that he insinuates the specter, as he does in several of his previous books, of "elites" dictating policy without knowing the true situation. Here again the "cherry pick only what I like" approach reveals itself.

Interestingly the Supreme Court that delivered this ruling was one appointed by right wing president Richard Nixon, under his chief Justice, Warren Burger. Also of note ,appeals Judge Simon Sobeloff, while concurring with the finding granting the old-line black employees relief, dissented from the majority ruling arguing, that the manipulations by Duke company were part of a covert pattern seen in other cases- Quote: "The pattern of racial discrimination in employment parallels that which we have witnessed in other areas. Overt bias, when prohibited, has oftimes been supplanted by more cunning devices designed to impart the appearance of neutrality but to operate with the same invidious effect as before." (cited in Smith 2008) Such grim reality in the ground is apparently beyond the conception of Thomas Sowell, himself a "distant third party" observer.


Apparently these thugs are "representative" of all black folk..

Ah those evil liberals, but let's skip scrutiny of libertarians and right wing conservatives

Sowell is often occupied recycling old material, but he quickly becomes contemporary when its time to bash "the liberals." If the opportunity arises for a bit of liberal bashing, for sins real or imagined, Sowell in on the case like white on rice, but has little to say about his right wing ilk. He even throws in the standard bogeyman standbys- Jesse Jackson, Al Sharpton and Twana Brawley (from 20 years ago- notice a pattern) as examples of evil liberalism in the present day. Such things play well with Sowell's libertarian and right wing "base."

The Negro menace: Sowell also works in a few incidents of "black wilding" or something called "the knockout game," played apparently by mostly black teens, involving approaching an unsuspecting victim and punching them out. Apparently such idiotic activity is only newsworthy when said negroes knock out a few Jews- and Sowell insinuates that liberal "apologists" condoned some attacks out of misguided concern for "troubled youth." Exactly who the liberal "apologists" are he does not say. Surely the standard bogeyman Al Sharpton would be among the liberal villans, but turns out that Al Sharpton issued a strong condemnation of the youth gangs carrying out the "knockout" attacks, but this of course is not mentioned by Sowell. Various incidents are ginned up into a sinister conspiratorial pattern of black evil against white people by Sowell and the right wing authors he cites, such as Michael Flatherty. But how does Sowell, a "distant third party" himself, know the right wing narrative is true?

Philadelphia mayor Michael Nutter in a 2012 news conference considered the "knockouts" to be simple assaults not any "racial trend." Likewise NY City Police Commissioner Ray Kelly declined to identify any sort of "racial conspiracy" or trend, debunking the claims of Sowell and his supporting authors. Other observers question whether a number of reported assaults were part of any "negro knockout" "trend" as opposed to the vicious excesses of a few criminal gangs who happen to be black. Jeffrey Butts, who specializes in youth criminal justice at John Jay College, says there's no real pattern to the way the attackers choose their victims, but they are always alone, and they stand out. "The victims are someone who the young people consider to be an 'other,'" Butts explained. "That could be a racial difference, it could be a religious difference, it could be an age difference, it just could be a class difference."
http://www.cbsnews.com/news/deadly-knockout-game-what-it-is/

And in some incidents, there was no "negro menace" to white people per se. The teen perps in one Philadelphia incident for example were white. In several other "knockout" videos, the victim and attacker are both black. And contrary to right wing claims about "the media" supposedly "ignoring" things, the attacks got wide media coverage, particularly when the victims were elderly white Jews and the perps were black. The racial angle was picked up right away and Al Sharpton weighed in with strong statements condemning said attacks, which rapidly declined after a brief flurry of activity. See: ("Knockout Games-The Biggest Form of Cowardice; Rev. Al Sharpton". Huffingtonpost.com. 2013-11-25. Retrieved 2013-12-08)

The CBS story on "knockouts" debunks the right wing narrative about "the media" not covering the story. CBS Video clips clearly show young negroes knocking out whites. CNN picked up the story and gave it a fair amount of play- even interviewing boxer Mike Tyson who condemned the attacks. So where is this story being "ignored" by "the media"? What right wingers seem to be really bothered about is that local media generally refuses to gin up various incidents into some sort of sinister anti-white "wave" of violence by blacks. These are the same conservatives who decry "playing the race card" but do not hesitate to deploy it when they find it convenient.

Menace from the laggards but not the advantaged: Sowell tries to "spin" the "negro knockout artists" into a narrative about how "more advanced groups" are likely to suffer violence from "lagging" or "backward" groups- like the Russian peasant pogroms of old against "more advanced peoples" like Jews in Eastern Europe. But this is dubious. The pogroms of Eastern Europe and elsewhere by so-called "lagging" groups, involved mobs of hundreds or thousands attacking a relatively small minority, sometimes with the connivance, indifference or even active participation of the legal authorities. Where is there anything similar among blacks in America? Are the swarms of black folk in NYC rushing out to Coney Island, Brighton Beach or Sheepshead Bay.to attack "advanced" Jews? And in the United States most "race riots" have been by supposedly "advanced" groups (white) attacking "lagging" groups Black and Asian) including over 3,000 lynchings of blacks. But of course you will hear very little about this from Sowell in his "group comparisons." See http://www.reuters.com/article/us-usa-crime-knockout-idUSBRE9AP11Z20131126

Predictably, Sowell has nothing to say about attacks by white racists against blacks-several are documented every year in the US. Nor does Sowell have much to say about racially motivated police abuses against blacks (as witnessed by the multi-million dollar payouts cities keep making to cover or settle misconduct cases by their mostly white officers). [http://www.huffingtonpost.com/entry/chicago-police-settlement-misconduct-210-million_us_5787f6a6e4b03fc3ee500a88] This omission is telling, for police abuses are an integral part of the story behind the black ghetto riots of the 1960s and beyond, not only "hooliganism", as any credible history shows. Pointing this out does not mean one does not support police or is "against law and order." But Sowell's selective omission on this score shows he is prone too often to parroting right wing propaganda, rather than objectively examining the issues at hand. These examples are detailed but they illustrate a pattern- not that of an author analyzing the issues in a balanced way but of someone cherry-picking various items, and ignoring data to the contrary, so as to grind a particular ideological axe.




Irony: some of the data in the book debunks certain right-wing claims

In fairness, it should be noted that some of this detail debunks standard right wing claims about "genetic" explanations for "lagging" groups, as well as right wing "environmental" explanations, such as the supposed efficacy of cold climates for promoting and fostering advanced civilization. For example various right wing proponents are able to offer few credible explanations as to why most of the foundational advanced civilizations sprang up not in supposedly benevolent cold climates, but in hot or warm tropical or sub-tropical climates, from Ancient Egypt, to Mesopotamia, even to sub-tropical southern Europe. Why did the allegedly more virtuous cold climate northern or Eastern Europeans lag behind historically?

As regards the tropics and sub-tropics, Egypt or Kemet for example is partially in the tropical belt, and its dynastic civilization was foundationally laid by Africans from within and to the south of the Sahara as virtually every credible scholar or specialist in the field affirms (Morkot 2005, Lovell 999, Raxter and Ruff 2008, Smith 2002, Kemp 2005, etc etc. ad infinitum) Look dear reader- CONTEMPORARY scholarly references! Curiously, the master of empirical data Thomas Sowell has little to say on this matter that directly bears on what some of his various right-wing allies are pushing.  Still for what its worth, the book debunks a number of  overblown and hypocritical "HBD" or "hereditarianism" claims on this score. Several details were given on the white Irish in previous posts for example, showing that would be northern European pacesetters were unimpressive "role models" of anything, but Sowell adds rural whites or "hillbillies" to the list of examples. He also shows that exceptionalist claims of sole northern genius, somehow divorced from the massive borrowing and copying from non-European cultures over history are quite dubious.



Poor northern Europeans also show the same problems as blacks on IQ - QUOTE:
"The “hillbillies” were described as a degenerate population “with the lowest standard of living and moral code (if any). . . and the most savage tactics when drunk, which is most of the time.” National publicity followed, with stories in Time, Look, and Harper’s, the latter under the headline “The Hillbillies Invade Chicago.” That article’s subhead gave away the racial slippage: “The city’s toughest integration problem has nothing to do with Negroes. . . . It involves a small army of white Protestant, Early American migrants from the South— who are usually proud, poor, primitive, and fast with a knife.” The message was clear and intentional: these people are “worse than the colored.”

"The parallels with blacks go beyond the opinions of others. A 1932 study of white children from small communities in the Blue Ridge Mountains found that these white children not only had IQ scores somewhat lower than the national average of 85 for black children, but also had IQ patterns similar to those of black children— such as doing their worst on abstract questions and having IQs closer to the U.S. national average of 100 in their early years, with a widening gap as they grew older."


--Thomas Sowell. 2015. Wealth, Poverty and Politics_ An International Perspective. p 33



Europeans are beneficiaries of numerous things copied or borrowed from NON European peoples
QUOTE:
"What this meant was that the indigenous populations of North America and South America had both a smaller economic universe and a smaller cultural universe than that of peoples in Europe, Asia or North Africa. Not only could exotic goods travel thousands of miles across the Eurasian landmass, they could also travel thousands of miles across water in large ships.

These imports included many things that originated in Asia— paper, printing, gunpowder, the compass, rudders, stirrups, spaghetti, chess, and a numbering system that Europeans called Arabic numerals (because they first saw these numerals in use among the Arabs, even though the numerals actually originated in India). All these things created in Asia became part of the cultural universe of Europeans. Much knowledge from the Middle East and North Africa also found its way into Europe, including the agricultural and architectural advances that the North African Moors brought with them when they invaded and conquered Spain. When the British confronted the Iroquois on the east coast of North America, the mental and material resources at the disposal of these two races were by no means confined to what they had each developed themselves.

The British had been able to navigate across the Atlantic, in the first place, by using the compass invented in China, doing mathematical calculations with a numbering system from India, steering with rudders invented in China, writing on paper invented in China, using letters created by the Romans, and ultimately prevailing in combat using gunpowder, also invented in China."

--Thomas Sowell. 2015. Wealth, Poverty and Politics_ An International Perspective. p 43

 

Bottom line:

While here is good detail on things like geography and the characteristics of immigrant groups and their rise from poverty - this is a rehash basically of some of his earlier work like the 1990s book "Geography and Culture," or even 1983's "Economics and Politics of Race." This is very little substantive coverage of contemporary factors involved in wealth and poverty. Much of the anecdotes, such as the "Negro knockout artists" will play well with "the base" of right wingers and libertarians, (old ghetto riots by US negroes anybody?), but there is little new for the discriminating reader. Looking at the lack of contemporary substance, one cannot help but get the impression that Sowell is "playing" his base by re-releases of old material. Some of this is understandable. In his 80s now, with little up to date research done for over a decade, Sowell comes across as a canny curmudgeon, squeezing out a last coupla paydays, from "the base."






LINKS TO OTHER POSTS:


Sowell 3- new data shows backward tropical evolution? Wealth and Poverty- An International Perspective in Trump era
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2017/07/sowell-3-new-data-shows-backward.html

Sowell 2- Wealth, Poverty and Politics- International Perspective - Trump era to bring these issues into sharper focus?
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2017/07/sowell-2-wealth-poverty-and-politics.html

Sowell- Liberal intellectuals and hard questions about race differences- Trump era may force them to focus?
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2017/07/sowell-liberal-intellectuals-and-hard.html


Trump properties discriminated against black tenants lawsuit finds
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2016/07/trump-properties-discriminated-against.html

Stealing credibility- Dinesh D'souza has prison epiphany- after hanging with the homies- Hallelujah Hilary!
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2016/05/straining-credibility-dinesh-dsouza-has.html

Shame on you, and your guilt too- A review of Shelby Steele's 'Shame'
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2016/05/a-review-wealth-poverty-and-politics.html


Go with the flow 3- more DNA and cranial studies show ancient African migration to, or African presence in ancient Europe
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2016/04/go-with-flow-3-more-dna-and-cranial.html

Go with the flow 2- African gene flow into Europe in various eras
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2015/11/go-with-flow-2-african-gene-flow-into.html


DNA studies show African movement to Europe from very ancient times
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2015/09/dna-studies-show-african-movement-to.html

Guilt3- Why the "white privilege industry" is not all there
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2015/09/guilt3-why-white-privilege-industry-is.html

Guilt2- Media collaborates with guilt mongers - or how to play the white victim card
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2015/09/guilt2-media-collaborates-with-guilt.html

How Obama plays on white guilt
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2015/08/how-obama-plays-upon-white-guilt-hilary.html

Blacks oppose free speech- more ramshackle "research" from "the East"..
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2015/08/blacks-oppose-free-speech-ramshackle.html

Hands off the Confederate flag
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2015/06/hands-off-confederate-flag.html

Despite much more wealth than blacks, whites collect about the same rate of welfare and are treated more generously
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2015/06/despite-much-more-wealth-than-blacks.html

African "boat people" ushering in European demographic decline
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2015/05/african-boat-people-ushering-in.html



The forgotten Holocaust- King Leopold's "Congo Free State" - 10 million victims
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2015/04/the-forgotten-holocaust-10-million-in.html


Are violent minorities taking over California and the West?
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2015/04/are-violent-minorities-taking-over.html

Presidential hopeful Ben Carson meets and Greeks
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2015/03/presidential-hopeful-ben-carson-meet.html

Contra "ISIS" partisans, there have been some beneficial effects of Christianity
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2015/03/contra-isis-partisans-there-are-some.html


The social construction of race, compared to biology- Graves
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2015/02/the-social-construction-of-race_8.html

Why HBD or hereditarianism lacks credibility
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/10/why-hbd-or-hereditarianism-lacks.html

Leading Scientists criticize hereditarian claims
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/08/leading-scientists-criticize.html

Thai me down - Thais fall behind genetically related southern Chinese, Tibetans below genetically related East Asians like Koreans and other Chinese
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/08/thai-me-up-thai-me-down.html

Time for liberals to respect "the south" ... in a way of speaking.. the south of Egypt that is..
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/08/time-for-liberals-to-respect-south-in.html

Irony 2: touted High IQ "G-men" cannot reproduce themselves 
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/07/irony-2-higher-iqs-correlated-with_25.html



Unz and Sowell: Unz debunking Lynn's IQ and Wealth of Nations. Sowell debunking the Bell Curve
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/07/unz-and-sowell-unz-debunking-lynns-iq.html

Irony 1: touted High IQ types are more homosexual, more atheist, and more liberal (HAL)
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/06/irony-high-iqs-produce-more-atheists.html


Elite white universities discriminate against Asians using reverse "affirmative action"
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/06/elite-white-universities-discriminate.html

Deteriorating state of white America
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/05/deteriorating-state-of-white-america.html


Racial Cartels (The Affirmative Action Propaganda machine- part 2
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/05/the-affirmative-action-propaganda.html

Hereditarian's/HBD's "Great Black Hope"
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/04/blog-post.html



Exploding nonsense: the 10,000 Year Explosion
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/03/exploding-nonsense-review-of-cochran_8.html


We need "rational racism"- Convicted felon Dinesh Dsouza becomes his own test case
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/01/we-need-rational-racism-proponent.html

The Affirmative Action Propaganda Machine- part 1
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/01/the-affirmatve-action-propaganda.html

Two rules for being "really" black- no white wimmen, no Republican
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/01/to-be-really-black-you-cant-have-white.html

The Axial age reconsidered
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/01/the-axial-age-reconsidered.html

Cannibal seasonings: dark meat on white
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2013/12/i.html

"Affirmative Action" in the form of court remedies has been around a long time- since the 1930s- benefiting white union workers against discrimination by employers
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2013/09/affirmative-action-as-term-appears-in.html

Mugged by reality 1: White quotas, special preferences and government jobs
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2013/06/mugged-by-reality-1-white-quotas.html


Lightweight enforcement of EEO laws contradicts claims of "flood" of minorities "taking jobs"
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2013/06/blog-post.html

Railroaded 3: white violence and intimidation imposed quotas
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2013/06/railroaded-3-white-violence-and.html

Railroaded 2: how white quotas and special preferences blockade black progress...
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2013/06/railroaded-2-thow-white-quotas-and.html

Railroaded 1: How white affirmative action and white special preferences destroyed black railroad employment...
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2013/06/railroaded-how-white-affirmative-action.html

Affirmative action: primary beneficiaries are white women
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2011/04/affirmative-action-primary.html

7 reasons certain libertarians and right-wingers are wrong about the Civil Right Act
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2012/05/7-reasons-libertarians-may-be-wrong.html

Assorted "Role models" debunked- hypocritical heriditarianism
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2009/11/hbd-debunked-debunking-hypocritical.htmll


Social philosophy of Thomas Sowell
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2011/07/social-philosophy-of-thomas-sowell.html


Additional gene flow data... :)


Bogus "biodiversity" theories of Kanazawa, Ruston, Lynn debunked
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2010/09/blog-post.html

JP Rushton, Michael Levin, Richard Lynn debunked. Weaknesses of Jared Diamond's approach. 
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2010/04/blog-post_1818.html

In the Blood- debunking "HBD" and Neo-Nazi appropriation of ancient Egypt
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2009/11/blog-post_29.html

early Europeans and middle Easterners looked like Africans. Peoples returning or "backflowing" to Africa would already be looking like Africans
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2010/05/blog-post_1754.html

 Ancient Egypt: one of the world's most advanced civilizations- created by tropical peoples
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2010/09/blog-post_06.html

Playing the "Greek defence" -debunking claims of Greeks as paragons of virtue or exemplars of goodness
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2013/03/playing-greek-defence-review-of-thornton.html

Quotations from mainstream academic research on the Nile Valley peoples
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2010/04/blog-post_9251.html


http://egyptsearchreloaded.proboards.com/thread/15/basic-database-nile-valley-studies



OTHER LINKS
Race, IQ, and Wealth: What the facts tell us about a taboo subject By Ron Unz


HBD EVOLUTION, BRAIN SIZE AND NATIONAL IQ CLAIMS DEBUNKED
Evolution, brain size, and the national IQ of peoples ... - Jelte Wicherts 2010
http://wicherts.socsci.uva.nl/wichertsPAIDrejoinder.pdf
------------------------------------

Why national IQs do not support evolutionary theories of intelligence - WIcherts, Borsboom and Dolan 2010
Personality and Individual Differences 48 (2010) 91-96
http://wicherts.socsci.uva.nl/wicherts2010.pdf
----------------------------- -------------

Are intelligence tests measurement invariant over time? by JM Wicherts - ?2004
 --Dolan, Wicherts et al 2004. Investigating the nature of the Flynn effect. Intelligence 32 (2004) 509-537
http://www.iapsych.com/iqmr/fe/LinkedDocuments/wicherts2004.pdf
-------------------------------------------

LYNN AND VANHAVEN'S IQ AND THE WEALTH OF NATIONS DEBUNKED
---------------- -------

www.anth.uconn.edu/faculty/mcbrearty/Pdf/McB%20&%20Brooks%202000%20TRTW.pdf

------------------------

Race and other misadventures: essays in honor of Ashley Montagu... By Larry T. Reynolds, Leonard Lieberman

http://books.google.com/books?id=5DLrgG_MflgC&pg=PA190&dq=r-+k-+selection+races&cd=1#v=onepage&q=r-%20k-%20selection%20races&f=false
--------------------------------

Race and intelligence: separating science from myth. By Jefferson M. Fish. Routledge 2002. See Templeton's detailed article referenced above also inside the book

http://books.google.com/books?id=t9OdPPLIgMAC&pg=PA64&dq=r-+k-+selection+races&cd=7#v=onepage&q=r-%20k-%20selection%20races&f=false
------------------------

http://www.ogiek.org/indepth/what-they-mean.htm
---------------- -------

Oubre, A (2011) Race Genes and Ability: Rethinking Ethnic Differences, vol 1 and 2. BTI Press
For summary see: http://www.skeptic.com/eskeptic/05-02-18/
---------------- -------

http://www.dartmouth.edu/~chance/course/topics/curveball.html

-----------------------------------------------------------

--S OY Keita, R A Kittles, et al. "Conceptualizing human variation," Nature Genetics 36, S17 - S20 (2004)
http://www.nature.com/ng/journal/v36/n11s/pdf/ng1455.pdf


--S.O.Y. Keita and Rick Kittles. (1997) *The Persistence ofRacial Thinking and the Myth of Racial Divergence. AJPA, 99:3
http://www.councilforresponsiblegenetics.org/pageDocuments/WAURRSZQOE.pdf
---------------- -------

HBD RACE EVOLUTION CLAIMS DEBUNKED BY GENETICISTS
Alan Templeton. "The Genetic and Evolutionary significnce oF Human Races." pp 31-56. IN: J. FiSh (2002) Race and Intelligence: Separating scinnce from myth.

IQ claims and miscellaneous data
HBD RACE AND INTELLIGENCE CLAIMS DEBUNKED
 J. FiSh (2002) Race and Intelligence: Separating science from myth.

------------------------------------------





MORE HBD DEBUNKING
-------------------------------- ---------------------



Oubre, A (2011) Race Genes and Ability: Rethinking Ethnic Differences, vol 1 and 2. BTI Press
----------------------------------------------

Krimsky, S, Sloan.K (2011) Race and the Genetic Revolution: Science, Myth, and Culture
-------------------------------


Wicherts and Johnson, 2009. Group differences in the heritability of items and test scores
http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/early/2009/04/24/rspb.2009.0238.full


http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2013/06/coming-apart-can-murrays-down-with.html


"SELECTION FOR"- "SELECT FOR" HDB CLAIMS DEBUNKED- "SELECTION" IS NOT THE ONLY KEY FORCE DRIVING CHANGE
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2012/12/demic-diffusion-notes-and-tropical.html

http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2012/05/7-reasons-libertarians-may-be-wrong.html

http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2012/08/cro-magnons-are-us-debunking-claims.html

http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/03/exploding-nonsense-review-of-cochran_8.html



--Joseph Graves, 2006. What We Know and What We Don’t Know: Human Genetic Variation and the Social Construction of Race
http://raceandgenomics.ssrc.org/Graves/

J. Kahn (2013) How a Drug Becomes "Ethnic" - Yale Journal of Health Policy, Law and Ethics, v4:1
http://digitalcommons.law.yale.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1072&context=yjhple

------------------------------------ -----------------

http://evolution.binghamton.edu/evos/wp-content/uploads/2012/04/PageProofs-Graves_race.pdf

-------------------------------------------- ----------------------------



other links



Evolution, brain size, and the national IQ of peoples ... - Jelte Wicherts 2010
http://wicherts.socsci.uva.nl/wichertsPAIDrejoinder.pdf
------------------------------------

Why national IQs do not support evolutionary theories of intelligence - WIcherts, Borsboom and Dolan 2010
Personality and Individual Differences 48 (2010) 91-96
http://wicherts.socsci.uva.nl/wicherts2010.pdf
----------------------------- -------------

Are intelligence tests measurement invariant over time? by JM Wicherts - ?2004
 --Dolan, Wicherts et al 2004. Investigating the nature of the Flynn effect. Intelligence 32 (2004) 509-537
http://www.iapsych.com/iqmr/fe/LinkedDocuments/wicherts2004.pdf
-------------------------------------------

LYNN AND VANHAVEN'S IQ AND THE WEALTH OF NATIONS DEBUNKED
---------------- -------

www.anth.uconn.edu/faculty/mcbrearty/Pdf/McB%20&%20Brooks%202000%20TRTW.pdf

------------------------

Race and other misadventures: essays in honor of Ashley Montagu... By Larry T. Reynolds, Leonard Lieberman

http://books.google.com/books?id=5DLrgG_MflgC&pg=PA190&dq=r-+k-+selection+races&cd=1#v=onepage&q=r-%20k-%20selection%20races&f=false
--------------------------------

Race and intelligence: separating science from myth. By Jefferson M. Fish. Routledge 2002. See Templeton's detailed article referenced above also inside the book

http://books.google.com/books?id=t9OdPPLIgMAC&pg=PA64&dq=r-+k-+selection+races&cd=7#v=onepage&q=r-%20k-%20selection%20races&f=false
------------------------

http://www.ogiek.org/indepth/what-they-mean.htm
---------------- -------

Oubre, A (2011) Race Genes and Ability: Rethinking Ethnic Differences, vol 1 and 2. BTI Press
For summary see: http://www.skeptic.com/eskeptic/05-02-18/
---------------- -------

http://www.dartmouth.edu/~chance/course/topics/curveball.html

-----------------------------------------------------------

--S OY Keita, R A Kittles, et al. "Conceptualizing human variation," Nature Genetics 36, S17 - S20 (2004)
http://www.nature.com/ng/journal/v36/n11s/pdf/ng1455.pdf


--S.O.Y. Keita and Rick Kittles. (1997) *The Persistence ofRacial Thinking and the Myth of Racial Divergence. AJPA, 99:3
http://www.councilforresponsiblegenetics.org/pageDocuments/WAURRSZQOE.pdf
---------------- -------

HBD RACE EVOLUTION CLAIMS DEBUNKED BY GENETICISTS
Alan Templeton. "The Genetic and Evolutionary significnce oF Human Races." pp 31-56. IN: J. FiSh (2002) Race and Intelligence: Separating scinnce from myth.


HBD RACE AND INTELLIGENCE CLAIMS DEBUNKED
 J. FiSh (2002) Race and Intelligence: Separating science from myth.

------------------------------------------




MORE HBD DEBUNKING
-------------------------------- ---------------------

Oubre, A (2011) Race Genes and Ability: Rethinking Ethnic Differences, vol 1 and 2. BTI Press
----------------------------------------------

Krimsky, S, Sloan.K (2011) Race and the Genetic Revolution: Science, Myth, and Culture
-------------------------------


Wicherts and Johnson, 2009. Group differences in the heritability of items and test scores
http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/early/2009/04/24/rspb.2009.0238.full


http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2013/06/coming-apart-can-murrays-down-with.html


"SELECTION FOR"- "SELECT FOR" HDB CLAIMS DEBUNKED- "SELECTION" IS NOT THE ONLY KEY FORCE DRIVING CHANGE
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2012/12/demic-diffusion-notes-and-tropical.html

http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2012/05/7-reasons-libertarians-may-be-wrong.html

http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2012/08/cro-magnons-are-us-debunking-claims.html

http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/03/exploding-nonsense-review-of-cochran_8.html



--Joseph Graves, 2006. What We Know and What We Don’t Know: Human Genetic Variation and the Social Construction of Race
http://raceandgenomics.ssrc.org/Graves/

J. Kahn (2013) How a Drug Becomes "Ethnic" - Yale Journal of Health Policy, Law and Ethics, v4:1
http://digitalcommons.law.yale.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1072&context=yjhple

------------------------------------ -----------------

http://evolution.binghamton.edu/evos/wp-content/uploads/2012/04/PageProofs-Graves_race.pdf