Sunday, November 29, 2009

In the Blood- debunking the Neo-Nazi appropriation of ancient Egypt based on blood type

.Blood types and Ancient Egypt - debunking Neo-Nazi appropriation of Ancient Egyptian heritage

Across the web, Neo-Nazis and sympathizers labor to appropriate the ancient Egyptian heritage, and prove a "white Nordic" Egypt using thinly disguised "blood type analysis" reminiscent of the Hitler era. The presence of blood type A for example is held to signify "the white Nordic character" of the Egyptians. The presence of the A2 and its "MN antigens" is held to show a "white Nordic" King Tut. This misinformed "racial science" would be laughable were it not being spammed across the web as "fact." This page debunks Neo-Nazi racial fantasies and its racist appropriation of the ancient Egyptian heritage.

'Aryan' proponents and sympathizers assert that blood type A2 has MN antigens attached and this conclusively shows a white Nordic Egypt, since no 'negroid groups' have said MN antigens with A2.

This claim is complete nonsense. Below are the antigens of blood type A. Antigens M and N do not cling to A2 like limpets.

Proponents of a "white Egypt" hold that modern Egyptians have Type A blood which is found in greater proportions in Europe, thus showing they are white Nordics.

Type A blood is also found in Africa however, and frequencies of Type O and type B, also found in Egypt, are higher among Africans than Europeans, puncturing the 'Nordic' balloon. Extremely high frequencies of Type A blood as such is also found among Blackfoot Indians of the United States, and high occurrences appear among some Australian Aborigines. Using the "race type" approach, presumably then we can speak of a "Blackfoot" or "Australoid" Egypt?"

Racist "blood" models hearken back to German scholar Otto Reche. "In Germany, Otto Reche- a prominent professor of racial science- seized upon this fact as a possible means of identifying races. He believed that A was the blood type of northern Europeans (Aryans). In Reche's terms, A and B were "enemy" blood groups that should not be mingled, a metaphor that arose from the dangers of transfusing an A-type individual with B-type blood. It was not accidental that B genes also identified likely Jews, the enemy of the German state." Even more virulent writings of Ernst Haeckel followed, along with the establishment of "racial" and eugenics institutes as Hitler rose to power. (Shipman, Pat (2002). The Evolution of Racism).

THE HIGHEST INDIGENOUS VARIANT DISTRIBUTION OF A IS FOUND IN AFRICA, and this includes A2, undramatic as it may seem compared to alleged "Nordic" hordes sweeping into Egypt to civilize the natives.

QUOTE from D'Adamo 2002:
"There are over 20 recognized variants of group A- although about 95% of all As are A1. Most of the variants are found in Africa, and probably represent adaptations to local parasites. These include A2, Ax and A-Bantu."
-- (Complete blood type encyclopedia: the A-Z reference guide for the blood type. By Peter J. D'Adamo, Catherine Whitney, 2002, pg 43).

RACIAL TYPING AND BLOOD GROUPS - Neo-Nazis and sympathizers argue that analysis of King Tut's tissues found the A2 blood type variant (part of larger Group A) which would make King Tut white A2 appears only in Europeans.

This too is complete nonsense. The touted A2 blood type makes up only a minor frequency of Type A, chiefly among outlier populations like Lapps, Blackfoot Indians or Australian Aborigines. Does this make King Tut was a Lapp? or Blackfoot Indian? The highest frequencies of A2 are found in small, unrelated populations, especially the Blackfoot Indians of Montana (30-35%), the Australian Aborigines (many groups are 40-53%), and the Lapps, or Saami people, of Northern Scandinavia (50-90%). The A allele apparently was absent among Central and South American Indians. A2 is ALSO found in Africa, well within the scope of distribution to the Nile Valley area over the millennia from within Africa, without the dramatic presence of Blackfoot Indians, reindeer herding Lapps, or boomerang wielding Australian Aborigines. King Tut then had more than enough scope to pick up A2 within Africa without needing the presence of "wandering Caucasoids" in the Nile Valley. Source: Daniels 2006, Essential Guide to Blood Groups).

Links between A2 ,King Tut and other royal family members show white elite in ancient Egypt based on A2.

Aryan sympathizers and proponents proffer the 1969 work of Harrison, and Connolly, which sought to demonstrate kinship between Smenkhkare and Tutankhamun. Both men perhaps would be astonished at the appropriation of their work for the Neo-nazi agenda, but nevertheless as shown above, A2 is comfortably present in Africa or among African derived types. A a review of Harrison and Connolly's work in the Encyclopedia of the Archaeology of Ancient Egypt, Bard and Shubert (1999) note Harrison's work but sound a caution about potentially false results with such testing on ancient mummies - :

"However, other investigators have recently warned about the difficulty of controlling against false positive or false negative results. The later may occur as the result of contaminating bacterial enzymes. F.W. Rosing has noted that ABO tests were successful from brain tissue, but not from epithelium and muscle tissue."
-- (Bard and Shubert, Encyclopedia of the archaeology of ancient Egypt. 1999, pg 542)

One of the oldest Egyptian mummies ever examined as found to be of Type B blood, not the alleged "Aryan Caucasoid" settlers with blood type A2 sweeping into the Nile Valley.

Examination of a 3200-year old mummy of a 14-year-old Egyptian boy named Nakht, was conducted by Hart et al (1978). Serological results revealed his blood group as type B.
-- G.D. Hart, I. Kvas, M. Soots, Blood group testing of ancient material with particular reference to the
mummy Nakht, Transfusion 18 (1978) 474–478.

Mainstream scholars note of Type B:
In Europe however (quote) "In Europe, B frequency varies from between 8% and 12%." (Daniels 2006- 'Essential Guide to Blood groups') and quote: "Blood group B is a distinctly non-Indo-European blood type." (D' Adamo 2002- The Complete Blood Type Encyclopedia). D'Adamo also notes that Type B indicates a clear link between Egypt and sub-Saharan Africa. :

"Interestingly, Africa in general (independent of any racial categorization) has a higher incidence of group B than Europe or the Middle East. Whether this is the result of intermingling or the original B gene pool is unknown, however it does imply that the links between ancient Egypt and sub-Saharan Africa are deeper and older than generally recognized. "
--D'Adamo (2002) "The Complete Blood Type Encyclopedia. pg 14

Neo-nazis assert that the coming of the Persians to Egypt brought an influx of Type B Blood, hence proof of "Aryan" settlement, since both Africa and Egypt were lacking in such Type B before Aryan peoples arrived.

A review of the scientific literature however determines this claim to be dubious. The Persians were latecomers to Egypt and type B has been in human populations of Africa long before their arrival. The Egyptians thus did not have to wait for the late coming "Persian" era to bring them the blessings of Type B after over 3,000 years of continuous civilization. Nor do the putative incoming Persian hordes offer much comfort or evidence of Aryan goodness. Hanihara 1996 shows that the features of early Iranians resemble modern Africans, and indeed cluster with Bantu types on analysis. : "Early West Asians looked like Africans." Hence any incoming hordes would still be dark skinned types that looked like the dreaded Bantu 'negroids.' Alack and alas for Aryan "race science'... No matter what the calculus, the worrisome 'darker brethren' refuse to conveniently go away...

-Hanihara, T. (1996). Comparison of craniofacial features of major human groups. Am. Jrnl Physical Anthro)

Serology or blood type studies link Africans to Ancient Egyptians

Close similarity in ABO serology between modern Haratin populations and those of ancient Egyptians was also shown by G. Paoli, ("ABO Typing of Ancient Egyptians" IN _Population biology of ancient Egyptians_, edited by D.R. Brothwell and B.A. Chiarelli, London, New York, 1973, p. 464.) Frequencies on some "q" gene elements by both peoples were almost twice those in typically European populations. (Montagu, A. _Introduction to Physical Anthropology_ 1960, p. 334). The Haratin are considered to be "Negroid" in physical type (Livingstone, 1967). Other serological tests have shown close affinity of certain Berber-speaking groups with tropical Africans in the high rates of cDe, P and V, and low Fy^a antigens(Keita 1990, Mourant et al., 1976, Chamla, 1980). They also group close with West Africans in the high incidence of HbC, HbS and the sickle cell condition (Livingstone, 1967). S.O.Y. KEITA, "Studies of Ancient Crania From Northern Africa", AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY 83:35-48 (1990)<10>

Serology data of Paoli show links between ancient Egyptians and black Saharan Haratin - part of the range of variability in the Nile Valley

G. Paoli, in "ABO Typing of Ancient Egyptians" IN _Population biology of ancient Egyptians_, edited by D.R. Brothwell and B.A. Chiarelli, London, New York, 1973, showed that the Dynastic Egyptians were most closely matched with the Haratin of the northern Sahara. Paoli mentions the theory of Cabot-Briggs (Cabot-Briggs, L. (1958), _The Living Races of the Sahara Desert, Massachussets) that this resemblance might indicate the origin of the Haratin. Here are the figures given for the two groups from Paoli (p. 464):

Modern Northern Haratin and Dynastic Egyptian
Group No. O A B AB p q r
Egyptians 160 34 64 34 28 34.35 21.45 44.20 (Paoli)
Haratin 202 40 80 57 25 30.99 23.14 48.87 (Mourant)

Paoli 1972 in a separately published paper reported the same findings, linking the ancient Egyptians with the Black Northern Haratin. :

"The genic frequencies calculated on the basis of the phenotypical distribution are the following ones: p = 34·35; q = 21·45; r = 44·20. Similar frequencies can be found, among the living populations of northern Africa, in the Algerian Haratin."
-- Paoli. G. (1972). Further biochemical and immunological investigations on early Egyptian remains. Journal of Human Evolution, Volume 1, Issue 5, September 1972, Pages 457-466.
In Paoli's analysis, Egyptians showed high levels of Type O and Type B. This pattern is similar to that of West Africans (See Boyd above). When various East Africans and N.E. Africans are considered, not only are O and B also high, but percentages of A are relatively high as well, sometimes exceeding European averages. See Sudanese and East African data below. This diversity of Africans undercuts stereotypical 'Aryan' models and claims.'Aryan' proponents and sympathizers also assert that a study by Paoli in 1982 found some "resemblances" between "leucoderm" populations of Europe and Egyptians. The only thing wrong with this claim is that it is complete rubbish. Borgognini and Paoli (1982- 'Paleoserological review') conducted a review of blood studies on Egyptian mummies. They found a pattern similar to Paoli (1972). The Egyptian samples overall showed higher levels of Type O blood and type B blood than Europeans. This is typical of the pattern of many African populations. Type A was present in high frequencies as well, but Type A blood also shows up in substantial frequencies among some African populations (Boyd 1950, 1955), sometimes exceeding the averages for various Europeans (Corgill 1949, et al.). The "resemblances" found confirm that Egyptians resemble one another more than other people- thus the ancients resemble modern Egyptian populations- but in two out of three blood groups, they resemble African populations more than Europeans. Borgognini and Paoli also note a general north-south cline in blood type O, with O becoming more frequent as one moves away from the far north of Egypt with its history of more intermingling from late-coming outsiders (Greeks, Romans, Persians, etc), towards the south. It should be noted however, that nearby populations in the Sudan such as the 'negroid' Nuba, Dinka or Nuer, actually exceed the Egyptians in the proportion of Type A blood, as shown below. Such genetic diversity in Africa undermines simplistic 'Aryan' race claims. Further south into Somalia, Somalis show heavier levels of blood type O than Egyptians, or Arabs, a pattern continuing among other peoples of Africa (P. Sistonend, J. Koistinena, Aden Abdulleb. (1987).

Other African groups, like the Flittas of Algeria show considerable negro admixture and also high frequencies of A2, undercutting "Aryan" claims as to the absence of A2 in Africa.

"A remarkable isolate is that of the Flittas who live at Zemmora, southeast of Oran, and have a long history of fierce resistance to successive rulers of Algeria.. Their ABO frequencies are unique, with 18 per cent of A2 genes, the highest frequency known except in the Lapps of northern Scandinavia. The total A gene frequency reaches the high level of 30 per cent, and M at 57 per cent is also well above the general North Africa level. The presence of 26 per cent of cDe shows considerable Negro admixture, presumably long ago. The high A2 frequency remains a mystery—it is presumably the result of genetic drift or natural selection.."
-- D'Adamo (2009) "Subgroups of Type A."

Conservative race scholars quoted by "Aryan" proponents and sympathizers ironically undercut their own claims. Below is the research of conservative scholar Boyd who used Blood groups to sort the races, and continued to do so in the 1960s along with scholars like Connoly:

Aryan "references" to older blood group research undermine their own assertions about A2 and "Nordic" King Tut showing ironically that the supposed A2 "Nordic" marker actually appears in HIGHER frequencies in Africa than in Europe.

"The fact that blood antigen A can be divided into two main sorts, A, and A2, probably determined by two corresponding genes, greatly increases the anthropological value of the ABO sys- tem. For it turns out that the A2 gene is unknown in Eastern Asia, in the Pacific, and among the American aborigines, being found only in the peoples of Europe, the Middle East, and Africa. The proportion of A2 to A, is higher in Africa than in Europe; the Middle East is in this respect, as in others, a transition area between Europe and Eastern Asia."
-- (Boyd W. (1963) Genetics and the Human Race. Science, New Series, Vol. 140, No. 3571

More older references continually cited by Aryan "researchers" ironically undermine their case:


RACES AND PEOPLE BY William C.Boyd, 1955 Abelard-Schumann, New York

"Now we can summarize our six genetic races: ~

1. Australian (Aboriginal): low B or none, low M, no A2
2. American (Indian): low B or none, low N, no A2
3. Asian: High B, high Rhz, no A2
4. African: High B, high Rho, some rh, high A2
5. European: moderately high rh, moderate B, moderate A2
6. Early European: very high rh, no B

~ The genes for O and A are so widespread among all groups of people that they are nearly useless in racial classification.

The six races (plus a seventh race which is less clear-cut) divide the world in an interesting manner. We can follow immigration waves that we could not follow if we used skin color or some other obvious physical characteristic. For instance, a group of immigrants high in A must have entered western Japan from Korea in the not distant past and spread eastward. That would account for the variation of frequency in the A gene in different parts of Japan.

As we learn more about the blood-group genes, and about other genes, too, and as we test more and more people all over the earth, we can expect to be able to trace man's evolution more exactly and to learn the stages by which he has populated the world."

When conservative Boyd did the analysis on blood groups in the 1950s, the groups with the highest A2 are Africans. Europeans had only have moderate levels of A2 according to conservative Boyd. His 1950s data has been superseded in recent years showing the highest levels of A2 in Blackfoot Indians and other isolated populations like the Laaps of Sweden. However it is ironic that the misuse of his work by Neo-Nazis should undermine their own claims upon closer examination. Quote:

"4. African: High B, high Rho, some rh, high A2

5. European: moderately high rh, moderate B, moderate A2"

According to conservative race typers like Boyd then, Tut would be closer to Africans based on A2.


Ironically, Aryan "purity" is undermined by the work of conservative scholars whom they cite, who maintain that Europeans are a hybrid, mongrel race, not a primary one at all.

According to conservative scholar Cavalli-Sforza: "it appears that Europeans are about two-thirds Asians and one-third African." --L. Cavalli-Sforza, (2001) Genes, Peoples and Languages. University of California Press


Aryan proponents hold that blacks do not have the MN gene. Their own references however debunk such rubbish.

Note MN genotype appearing in all human populations. Neo-Nazis deny its existence in "negroes" but their own references undermine such nonsensical claims. Note that the proportionate frequency of "MN" in sub-Saharan Nigerians of .495 is closer to the Egyptian frequency of .489 than to the prototypical "Nordics" - Germans at .507. The ironic outcome using such "racial calculus" is that the Africans are closer to the Egyptians than the Neo-Nazi's favored "Nordics."


Presence of Type O and B in Egypt also undercuts "white Egypt" claims.

Manchester University in the 1970s conducted a number of blood grouping tests on mummies using a mixed cell agglutination technique. "Of the nine mummies testing using this technique, three were in group A, five were group O and one group AB."
----A Rosalie David. (1986). Science in Egyptology: Proceedings of the 'science in Egyptology' Symposia p. 381

Thus 60% of the ancient mummies had type "O". This preponderance is also seen in Bantu groups which show more "O" than Europeans.

Advantage African in Type B
Furthermore the Egyptians have substantial frequencies of "B".
In Europe however (quote) "In Europe, B frequency varies from between 8% and 12%." (Daniels 2006)
and quote: "Blood group B is a distinctly non-Indo-European blood type." (D' Adamo 2002).

In Egypt the frequency of B is much higher- 24% (Beckman 1959). Among Bantu groups B frequencies average 19% (Beckman 1959). In terms of type B then, the African percentages are much closer to the Egyptians than the Europeans.

Advantage African in Type O
As regards type "O" the greatest frequencies are found in the Americas, Australia and Africa, not Europe. Quote: "Populations with a group O phenotype frequency greater than 60% are found in native people of the Americas and in parts of Africa and Australia, but not in most of Europe or Asia." (Daniels 2006).

In Egypt the frequency of O is 33% (Beckman 1959) compared to the bantu average of 46%. (Beckman 1959), compared to smaller O frequencies for Europe. In terms of Type O then, the African percentages are much closer to Egyptians than Europeans.


Summary- overall advantage: African

Summary: In 2 out of 3 blood groups, the Africans and closer to the Egyptians (Africans 66% - Europeans 33%). Advantage: African.

Africans are linked significantly with Egyptians via blood types according to mainstream scholars, again undermining dubious "Aryan" claims.
Interestingly, Africa in general (independent of any racial categorization) has a higher incidence of group B than Europe or the Middle East. Whether this is the result of intermingling or the original B gene pool is unknown, however it does imply that the links between ancient Egypt and sub-Saharan Africa are deeper and older than generally recognized. "
--D'Adamo (2002) "The Complete Blood Type Encyclopedia. pg 14

A study done in Human Heredity examined blood groups of Somalis, an East African population. They found little evidence of much Caucasoid admixture or touted "Nordic blood". It showed Somalis are much more related to other Africans, than Europeans or Middle Easterners.
The Somalis showed high levels of Type O, a pattern similar to many other African populations. It also showed small frequencies of blood type A2, supposedly a "special" type confined only to Europeans. In Africa however, A2 is anything but "special", and appears in Bantu and other black populations as well. Africa has the highest variant distribution of blood type A. In comparison with East Africans and other groups, the Somalis clustered closer to other Africans, than to Middle Easterners like the Arabs, contradicting claims that Somalis are more related to Eurasians than Africans.


"The results of a population survey on blood group distribution in Somalia, East Africa, are presented. Over 1,000 subjects were tested for most blood groups included in the survey. The sampling covered the whole country and was well in accordance with the population density as estimated by the recorded birth places of the subjects. Altogether, 46 blood group antigens were tested, partly common antigens within 11 of the major blood group systems, but also infrequent and very frequent antigens, some not tested before in Africa, were included. The results were compared with the available data for other related peoples and for populations from the same geographical area. The standard genetic distances were also applied in the comparison. The results suggest that only a minor component in the genetic constitution of the Somali population can be ascribed to Caucasian admixture. They are markedly in contrast with some earlier findings. During the survey we observed a previously unknown Rh gene complex occurring with a polymorphic frequency in Somalis."

"It is evident that our results point only to a minor admixture of Caucasian genes in the Somali population. Among these might be the relatively high frequency of Dce, the low M and the unequal distribution of S and between s between M and N as well as the somewhat lower Fy4 as compared with East African Bantus. Consequently it is very probable that the long-standing cultural and other connections with the Arabic world have not similarly found expression in the genetic make-up of the Somali population as they have affected the society. Rather to the contrary, it is known that the nearby Arab populations are the ones that have quite a considerable admixture of African genes. However there are similarities between the Cushitic peoples, as in Rh and MNSs frequencies, which today differentiate them from other populations in this part of African continent. Rather than suggesting a recent admixture (within the past 1,000 years or so), these could be of a very ancient nature, dating back to a period of consolidation of the aboriginal Cushitic population from which the presently known groups later diverged."

-- P. Sistonend, J. Koistinena, Aden Abdulleb. (1987) Distribution of Blood Groups in the East African Somali Population. Hum Hered. 37(5):300-313

Africa has the highest genetic and phenotypic diversity in the world and does not need any outside race mix to explain the fundamental range of physical variation or "looks" of its indigenous peoples. Numerous "negroid groups" show a range of blood types supposedly reserved for 'Europeans', such as the 'white' A2 touted by Aryan "research."

Note that blood Type A is HIGHEST in stereotypical 'negroid' groups like the Nuba, higher than more 'caucasoid' Arabs. Note too how other 'negroid groups' like the Dinka post Type A percentages almost as high as the Arabs. This diversity undercuts simplistic 'Aryan' claims about Africa.

Again note how the supposedly more "caucasoid" Hamites are beaten out on percentages of blood Type A by stereotypical "true" negro 'Congomorphs', an outcome that should be 'impossible' under "Aryan science".

In short, Africa has more than enough genetic diversity to produce a range of blood types and has done so without needing any reputed "Nordics." Said blood types appear in high frequencies in many different places throughout the continent. The touted, "reserved" blood types, like the laughable Nordic "MN antigens of A2" are complete rubbish.

Joint products of "racial evolution"...


The social construction of race, compared to biology- Graves

 Why HBD or hereditarianism lacks credibility

Leading Scientists criticize hereditarian claims

Thai me down - Thais fall behind genetically related southern Chinese, Tibetans below genetically related East Asians like Koreans and other Chinese

Time for liberals to respect "the south" ... in a way of speaking.. the south of Egypt that is..

Irony 2: touted High IQ "G-men" cannot reproduce themselves

Unz and Sowell: Unz debunking Lynn's IQ and Wealth of Nations. Sowell debunking the Bell Curve

Irony 1: touted High IQ types are more homosexual, more atheist, and more liberal (HAL)

Elite white universities discriminate against Asians using reverse "affirmative action"

Deteriorating state of white America

Racial Cartels (The Affirmative Action Propaganda machine- part 2

Hereditarian's/HBD's "Great Black Hope"

Exploding nonsense: the 10,000 Year Explosion

We need "rational racism"? Proponent Dinesh D;Souza becomes his own test case

The Affirmative Action Propaganda Machine- part 1

Two rules for being "really" black- no white wimmen, no Republican

The Axial age reconsidered - or latitude not attitide

Cannibal seasonings: dark meat on white

"Affirmative Action" in the form of court remedies has been around a long time- since the 1930s- benefiting white union workers against discrimination by employers

Mugged by reality 1: White quotas, special preferences and government jobs

Lightweight enforcement of EEO laws contradicts claims of "flood" of minorities "taking jobs"

Railroaded 3: white violence and intimidation imposed quotas

Railroaded 2: how white quotas and special preferences blockade black progress...

Railroaded 1: How white affirmative action and white special preferences destroyed black railroad employment...

Affirmative action: primary beneficiaries are white women...

7 reasons certain libertarians and right-wingers are wrong about the Civil Right Act

Social philosophy of Thomas Sowell

Bogus "biodiversity" theories of Kanazawa, Ruston, Lynn debunked

JP Rushton, Michael Levin, Richard Lynn debunked. Weaknesses of Jared Diamond's approach.

In the Blood- debunking "HBD" and Neo-Nazi appropriation of ancient Egypt

early Europeans and middle Easterners looked like Africans. Peoples returning or "backflowing" to Africa would already be looking like Africans

 Ancient Egypt: one of the world's most advanced civilizations- created by tropical peoples

Playing the "Greek defence" -debunking claims of Greeks as paragons of virtue or exemplars of goodness

Quotations from mainstream academic research on the Nile Valley peoples

Assorted data debunking

Evolution, brain size, and the national IQ of peoples ... - Jelte Wicherts 2010

Why national IQs do not support evolutionary theories of intelligence - WIcherts, Borsboom and Dolan 2010
Personality and Individual Differences 48 (2010) 91-96
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Are intelligence tests measurement invariant over time? by JM Wicherts - ?2004
 --Dolan, Wicherts et al 2004. Investigating the nature of the Flynn effect. Intelligence 32 (2004) 509-537

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Race and other misadventures: essays in honor of Ashley Montagu... By Larry T. Reynolds, Leonard Lieberman

Race and intelligence: separating science from myth. By Jefferson M. Fish. Routledge 2002. See Templeton's detailed article referenced above also inside the book
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Oubre, A (2011) Race Genes and Ability: Rethinking Ethnic Differences, vol 1 and 2. BTI Press
For summary see:
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--S OY Keita, R A Kittles, et al. "Conceptualizing human variation," Nature Genetics 36, S17 - S20 (2004)

--S.O.Y. Keita and Rick Kittles. (1997) *The Persistence ofRacial Thinking and the Myth of Racial Divergence. AJPA, 99:3
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Alan Templeton. "The Genetic and Evolutionary significnce oF Human Races." pp 31-56. IN: J. FiSh (2002) Race and Intelligence: Separating scinnce from myth.

 J. FiSh (2002) Race and Intelligence: Separating science from myth.


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Oubre, A (2011) Race Genes and Ability: Rethinking Ethnic Differences, vol 1 and 2. BTI Press

Krimsky, S, Sloan.K (2011) Race and the Genetic Revolution: Science, Myth, and Culture

Wicherts and Johnson, 2009. Group differences in the heritability of items and test scores

--Joseph Graves, 2006. What We Know and What We Don’t Know: Human Genetic Variation and the Social Construction of Race

J. Kahn (2013) How a Drug Becomes "Ethnic" - Yale Journal of Health Policy, Law and Ethics, v4:1

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1 comment:

Mystery Solver said...

Good accruement of researched data. Keep information rolling, and faux intellectuals constantly their toes - Mystery Solver aka Explorer.