Sunday, November 29, 2009

Notes 7

“From a genetic point of view, several recent genetic studies have shown that subSaharan genetic lineages (affiliated with the Y-chromosome PN2 clade; Underhill et al. 2001) have spread through Egypt into the Near East, the Mediterranean area, and, for some lineages, as far north as Turkey (E3b-M35 Y lineage; Cinniogclu et al. 2004; Luis et al. 2004), probably during several dispersal episodes since the Mesolithic (Cinniogelu et al. 2004; King et al. 2008; Lucotte and Mercier 2003; Luis et al. 2004; Quintana-Murci et al. 1999; Semino et al. 2004; Underhill et al. 2001).
This finding is in agreement with morphological data that suggest that populations with sub-Saharan morphological elements were present in northeastern Africa, from the Paleolithic to at least the early Holocene, and diffused northward to the Levant and Anatolia beginning in the Mesolithic. Indeed, the rare and incomplete Paleolithic to early Neolithic skeletal specimens found in Egypt - such as the 33,000-year-old Nazlet Khater specimen (Pinhasi and Semai 2000), the Wadi Kubbaniya skeleton from the late Paleolithic site in the upper Nile valley (Wendorf et al. 1986), the Qarunian (Faiyum) early Neolithic crania (Henneberg et al. 1989; Midant-Reynes 2000), and the Nabta specimen from the Neolithic Nabta Playa site in the western desert of Egypt (Henneberg et al. 1980) - show, with regard to the great African biological diversity, similarities with some of the sub-Saharan middle Paleolithic and modern sub-Saharan specimens.
This affinity pattern between ancient Egyptians and sub-Saharans has also been noticed by several other investigators..”
--Ricaut and Walekens (2008) ‘Cranial Discrete traits)


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Ward dental debunk



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fig 4


..


NEW DATA FROM KEITA 2008




Misc news stories and clips
TIMES-ONLINE NEWS ARTICLE - Skull of Cleopatra's sisterMurdered sister of Cleopatra found- a 2009 news article reveals details about Arsinoe, the sister Cleopatra and Mark Anthony had murdered as a potential rival.
QUOTE:
"Caroline Wilkinson, a forensic anthropologist, reconstructed the missing skull based on measurements taken in the 1920s. Using computer technology it was possible to create a facial impression of what Arsinöe might have looked like.

“It has got this long head shape,” said Wilkinson. “That’s something you see quite frequently in ancient Egyptians and black Africans. It could suggest a mixture of ancestry.”
http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/middle_east/article5908494.ece


BBC NEWS ARTICLE- 2009 - skeleton of Cleopatra's sister
In BBC news article, Austrian scientists say skeleton of Cleopatra's sister was African.
QUOTE:"Elizabeth Taylor's European Cleopatra persists in the public imagination Cleopatra, the last Egyptian Pharaoh, renowned for her beauty, was part African, says a BBC team which believes it has found her sister's tomb.
Queen Cleopatra was a descendant of Ptolemy, the Macedonian general who ruled Egypt after Alexander the Great. But remains of the queen's sister Princess Arsinoe, found in Ephesus, Turkey, indicate that her mother had an "African" skeleton.

Experts have described the results as "a real sensation."
The discovery was made by Hilke Thuer of the Austrian Academy of Sciences.
"It is unique in the life of an archaeologist to find the tomb and the skeleton of a member of Ptolemaic dynasty," she said.. "That Arsinoe had an African mother is a real sensation which leads to a new insight on Cleopatra's family and the relationship of the sisters Cleopatra and Arsinoe."
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/also_in_the_news/7945333.stm
Some DNA researchers claim an African origin for the Arabic languages
Report:
http://archiver.rootsweb.ancestry.com/th/read/GENEALOGY-DNA/2002-05/1022778928

Near Eastern languages came from Africa 10,000 years ago
Investigator: Ene Metspalu
Tuesday May 28th, 2002
by Laura Spinney

Analysis of thousands of mitochondrial DNA samples has led Estonian
archeogeneticists to the origins of Arabic. Ene Metspalu of the
Department of Evolutionary Biology at Tartu University and the
Estonian Biocentre in Tartu, claims to have evidence that the Arab-
Berber languages of the Near and Middle East came out of East Africa
around 10,000 years ago. She has found evidence for what may have
been the last sizeable migration out of Africa before the slave
trade.

Genetic markers transmitted through either the maternal or paternal
line have been used to trace the great human migrations since Homo
sapiens emerged in Africa. But attempts to trace the evolution of
languages have met with less success, partly because of the impact on
languages of untraceable political and economic upheavals.
Metspalu and colleagues analyzed inherited variations in a huge
number of samples - almost 3000 - of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) taken
from natives of the Near East, Middle East and Central Asia, as well
as North and East Africa.

mtDNA is inherited through the maternal line, and by comparing their
data with existing data on European, Indian, Siberian and other
Central Asian populations, the researchers were able to create a
comprehensive phylogenetic map of maternal lineages diverging from
Africa and spreading towards Europe and Asia.
Working in collaboration with language specialists, they found that
this movement 10,000 years ago, which was probably centred on
Ethiopia, could well have been responsible for seeding the Afro-
Asiatic language from which all modern Arab-Berber languages are
descended.

"This language was spoken in Africa 10,000 or 12,000 years ago,"
Metspalu told BioMedNet News. "We think it was around that time that
carriers brought these Afro-Asiatic languages to the Near East." The
language, or its derivatives, later spread much further afield.
What could have triggered the movement she can only speculate. One
possibility is that increasing desertification was causing famine in
Africa and driving hunters further afield in search of animals.
Interestingly, the lineages they traced through this 10,000-year-old
migration didn't seem to get much further north than modern-day Syria
or east of modern-day Iraq. There is no evidence of the lineages in
the mtDNA of people from Turkey or Iran, says Metspalu.

"We can't understand why this boundary [to the Arab-Berber speaking
world] is so sharp," she said. "They came out of Africa, and when
they reached Turkey they just stopped." She believes some kind of
physical boundary, now vanished, must have impeded them.

The same genetic detective work has confirmed archeological evidence
that the biggest movement out of Africa occurred around 50,000 years
ago - which is when Africans first settled in other continents - and
that it originated in a small East African population.

First modern Europeans looked like Africans
http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/europe/romania/5273654/Scientists-reveal-face-of-the-first-European.html
Scientists reveal face of the first European
The face of the first European has been recreated from bone fragments by scientists.

By Urmee Khan, Digital and Media Correspondent
Published: 8:22PM BST 04 May 2009

The first modern European Forensic artist Richard Neave reconstructed the face based on skull fragments from 35000 years ago. Photo: BBC The head was rebuilt in clay based on an incomplete skull and jawbone discovered in a cave in the south west of the Carpathian Mountains in Romania by potholers.

Using radiocarbon analysis scientists say the man or woman, it is still not possible to determine the sex, lived between 34,000 and 36,000 years ago.

Europe was then occupied by both Neanderthal man, who had been in the region for thousands of years, and anatomically-modern humans – Homo sapiens.

Modern humans first arrived in Europe from Africa.

The skull appears very like humans today, but it also displays more archaic traits, such as very large molar teeth, which led some scientists to speculate the skull may belong to a hybrid between Homo sapiens and Neanderthals – an idea discounted by other experts.

Erik Trinkaus, professor of anthropology at Washington University in Missouri, said the jaw was the oldest, directly-dated modern human fossil. "Taken together, the material is the first that securely documents what modern humans looked like when they spread into Europe," he said.

The model was created by Richard Neave, a forensic artist, for a BBC programme about the origins of the human race and evolution.
DISCOVERY CHANNEL Reconstruction of Queen Nefertiti Forensic reconstruction team of British experts did not know the ethnicity or origin of skull in advance - USA Today Article
http://www.usatoday.com/news/science/2003-08-12-nefertiti-usat_x.htm
Posted 8/12/2003 8:53 PM Updated 8/13/2003 10:48 AM








Could this be the profile of a queen?

Is this Nefertiti? Two months ago, a team of Egyptologists led by British scientist Joann Fletcher of the University of York announced that a neglected mummy collecting dust in a nondescript tomb was actually that of ancient Egypt's most famous female ruler.
In an effort to confirm her identity, two British experts have applied their forensic skills to digital X-rays of the skull. (Related graphic: Reconstructing Nefertiti)
Neither Damian Schofield of Nottingham University nor Martin Evison of Sheffield University knew in advance the identity of their "victim." They specialize in reconstructing human faces from skulls for murder cases in which the victim is unknown.
Schofield and Evison created a 3-D computer mesh of the skull, then placed a series of markers to designate where tissue would be added. Next, they added facial muscles to give the face its full depth and contour. Finally, a graphic artist added skin texture, eye color, lips and the crown.
Nefertiti: Her life and death
Schofield and Evison say the reconstruction does not prove the skull belongs to Nefertiti. But they were surprised at the similarities with Nefertiti's bust, which was made during her lifetime and is displayed at the Egyptian Museum in Berlin.
Says Fletcher: "I was bowled over by it, to be honest. The face is that of a very strong individual indeed. She has such a beautiful profile. She is stunning."
Nefertiti's image is one of the most popular today from ancient Egypt. But the real queen was hated by Egyptian society after her reign ended. An unusually powerful queen, she reigned with her husband, Akhenaten, who ruled from 1352 to 1336 B.C., during the late 18th dynasty. Nefertiti may have ruled as pharaoh for three years after his death.
Nefertiti vanished from Egyptian history with no trace of a royal tomb or evidence of a burial.
Link to Discovery Channelhttp://dsc.discovery.com/egypt/nefertiti-face/face.html
Italian reconstruction team confirms that Nefertiti bust in German museum is
covered with a plaster facade. CAT scans revealed another image beneath the
first layer. Italian team's forensic reconstruction is shown below.
An Italian duo have revealed what they claim is the 'real' face of Queen Nefertiti. Ethnologist Franco Crevatin, from the University of Trieste, and cosmetics expert Stefano Anselmo, started with a recent CAT scan of the famous queen's bust, held in Berlin's newly-reopened Neues Museum. The scan of 'Nonofret' as she's known in Germany, appeared to show a second face, made of stone, buried beneath the stucco top layer the world has come to adore. Using computer imaging, Crevatin and Anselmo have made what they feel is a faithful reproduction of the hidden face. And though differences are subtle - shallower eye sockets, lines around the mouth and a tiny bump on the bridge of the nose - the duo claim their version is closer to the real Nefertiti.
'Reproducing the face of a queen who is surrounded by such mystery required months of painstaking, detailed work,'' said Crevatin. ''It was particularly difficult given the number of entirely diverging theories on her. Some even believe the bust in Berlin is a fake, while others believe the queen only had one eye''. The bust of Nefertiti, who was the chief wife of Egyptian Pharaoh Akhenaten, is the central attraction at the newly reopened Neues Museum in Berlin. Thought to have been created in 1,345 BC by the sculptor Thutmose, it was discovered in the remains of his workshop on the banks of the Nile by a German archaeological team in 1912. The Egyptologist Ludwig Borchardt brought it to Germany the following year, although there are conflicting accounts of whether he lied in order to do so. Egyptian authorities have suggested the bust was smuggled out illegally and recently renewed a long-running campaign for its return. But Germany insists it acquired the Egyptian beauty lawfully and says it is too fragile to be sent back.
{Image: Neuves Museum, Berlin, Germany, 2009) http://www.lifeinitaly.com/node/12529


Image of the bust of Nefertiti on the left courtesy the Neues Museum, Berlin, Germany. The image on the right is the reconstruction made by Franco Crevatin and Stefano Anselmo.



CT IMAGES REVEAL THE HIDDEN FACE OF NEFERTITI


http://www.culturekiosque.com/art/news/nefertiti_bust_ct_images343.html
By Culturekiosque Staff
NEW YORK, 1 April 2009 - Using CT imaging to study a priceless bust of Nefertiti, researchers have uncovered a delicately carved face in the limestone inner core and gained new insights into methods used to create the ancient masterpiece and information pertinent to its conservation, according to a study published in the April issue of Radiology .
"We acquired a lot of information on how the bust was manufactured more than 3,300 years ago by the royal sculptor," said the study's lead author Alexander Huppertz, M.D., director of the Imaging Science Institute in Berlin, Germany. "We learned that the sculpture has two slightly different faces, and we derived from interpretation of the CT images how to prevent damage of this extremely precious art object."
The inner face differed slightly from the outer one, with creases around the mouth, less pronounced cheekbones and a bump on the ridge of the nose.
Nefertiti, the wife of the Egyptian pharaoh Akhenaten, was the most renowned Great Royal Wife of all 31 Egyptian dynasties. Considered one of the greatest finds of ancient Egypt, the bust of Nefertiti was discovered in 1912, during excavation of the studio of famous royal sculptor Thutmose.
The Nefertiti bust consists of a limestone core covered in layers of stucco of varying thickness. The bust was examined using CT for the first time in 1992, but recent advances in CT technology allowed the researchers to analyze the statue in 2007 with greater precision.
"CT has changed significantly since 1992," Dr. Huppertz said. "We can now acquire three-dimensional (3-D) images at a much higher resolution."
Dr. Huppertz and colleagues used a 64-section spiral CT technique with submillimeter section thickness to examine the bust and assess its conservation status, gain information on its creation and provide a 3-D surface reformation of the inner limestone sculpture.
The results showed that a multi-step process was used to create the sculpture. The stucco layer on the face and ears is very thin, but the rear part of the reconstructed crown contains two thick stucco layers. CT images showed several fissures and non-uniform bonding between the layers.
The inner limestone face was delicately sculpted and highly symmetric. Compared to the outer stucco face, the inner face exhibited some differences: less depth in the corners of the eyelids, creases around the corner of the mouth and cheeks, less prominent cheekbones and a slight bump on the ridge of the nose. The ears on the inner sculpture were similar to those visible on the exterior.
Thin-section CT was able to provide detailed images of the inner structure in a completely nondestructive manner and showed the limestone core to be not just a mold, but a skillfully rendered work of art. Retouching the creases in the corners of the mouth and smoothing the bump on the nose on the outer face may have been the artist's choice and reflective of the aesthetic ideals of that era.
CT findings also may be important in preventing future damage to the bust. The findings of multiple, varying layers of stucco, as well as fissures in the shoulders, lower surface of the bust and rear of the crown, indicate vulnerable areas requiring very careful handling, and pressure on the layers of thick stucco is to be avoided.
"Noninvasive CT technology and very advanced 3-D post-processing tools allow us greater insight into the internal composition and conservation status of the sculpture," Dr. Huppertz said. "This knowledge will greatly contribute to the preservation of this priceless antiquity."
The Nefertiti bust is part of the collection of the Egyptian Museum of Berlin and will be moved in October 2009 to the recently restored New Museum in the historical center of Berlin.
Special Report in April 2009 issue of Radiology
Nondestructive Insights into Composition of the Sculpture of Egyptian Queen Nefertiti with CT. Collaborating with Dr. Alexander Huppertz were Dietrich Wildung, Ph.D., Barry Kemp, Tanja Nentwig, Patrick Asbach, M.D., Franz Maximilian Rasche, M.D., and Bernd Hamm, M..D
Radiology
. April 2009 251:233-240; doi:10.1148/radiol.2511081175


German, British and Italian scans and reconstructions of Nefertiti
German team:
Plaster facade hiding original image of Nefertiti.

Source:
Nondestructive Insights into Composition of the Sculpture of Egyptian Queen Nefertiti with CT
. Alexander Huppertz, et a
l. Radiology. April 2009 251:233-240;

Siemens SCAN


Siemens Computed Tomography Scan of Nefertiti- 2007 as displayed in SOMATOM Sessions · June 2007 · www.siemens.com/medical-magazine, pg 53.
British team:

Italian team:

Reconstruction of Nefertiti by Italian team, University of Trieste, (2009). Image of the bust of Nefertiti on the left courtesy the Neues Museum, Berlin. Image on the right is the reconstruction by Franco Crevatin and Stefano Anselmo.
http://espresso.repubblica.it/dettaglio-local/ricostruita-a-trieste-la-bellezza-misteriosa-della-divina-

nefertiti/2114125


..



.....

Miscellaneous jottings

The Meritic language is not Nilo-Saharan but Afro-Asiatic modern scholars show

[quote]

"Research into the classification of Meroitic within a language family has consistently focused upon the Nilo-Saharan phylum (Trigger 1964, 1977, Bender 1981a, Hintze 1989, Peust 1999a, Aubin 2003, Rilly 2003, 2004a, 2005). However, this paper puts forward the proposal that the investigation should instead be concentrated on the Afroasiatic phylum. This is due to the process of consonantal compatibility restrictions being evident across languages within the Afroasiatic phylum, and that through the investigation set forward in this paper, it is found that these restrictions also exist in the Meroitic language.1 This investigation rests upon the firmest known aspect of the language, namely the phonemic values of the signs and their distribution. This paper discusses the literature on the proposed linguistic association of Meroitic with other languages. It is evidenced here that research into the linguistic association of Meroitic has focused specifically on the Nilo-Saharan phylum because data used in a paper by Zhylarz (1930) to show an affinity between Meroitic and Afroasiatic was discredited (Hintze 1955). Subsequently, so was the line of inquiry into Meroitic being a member of the Afroasiatic phylum.

The process of consonantal compatibility restrictions in languages across the Afroasiatic phylum is explained through subsections on a selection of these languages. This discussion then leads on to the core analysis of these restrictions in the Meroitic language. Further evidence is given which shows that the affiliation of Meroitic with the Nilo-Saharan Nubian language should finally be abandoned as this proposal consistently reappears even though it has drawn no conclusive evidence in the hundred years in which it has been constantly investigated. This paper is a small part of an investigation into Meroitic phonology that has wider implications for any linguistic analysis of the language. The investigation into consonantal compatibility restrictions was initiated through a reanalysis of a long-held supposition of the representation of the Meroitic vowel sign - e (Rowan 2006)."

--Kirsty Rowan (2006). Meroitic – an Afroasiatic language?. SOAS Working Papers in Linguistics Vol. 14 (2006): 169-206.

-------------------------

Misc female workforce and educational data

Quote:

"The National Merit Scholar procedure (undertaken in order to improve the gender mix in the candidate pool) is to choose potential scholarship recipients based on the math score plus two times the verbal score, but this does not lead to equal numbers of female and male recipients: in 1995-96, 39 percent of National Merit Scholars were female, even though 55 percent of students taking the PSAT.. were female. This led to a complaint by the organization FairTest, filed with the U.S. Department of Education's Office for Civil Rights, that led to the Educational Testing Service and College Board agreeing to add a writing skills section to the PSAT beginning with the high school class of 1999. This led to a significant reduction in the gender gap in qualifying test scores."
(Jacobsen.The economics of Gender. 2007.)


And as to “affirmative action: - quote:

Since 1972, all federal contractors and first-tier sub-contractors with 50 or more employees (or a contract worth $50,000 or more) must agree to "take affirmative action to ensure that applicants are employed and that employees are treated during employment without regard to their race, color, religion, sex or national origin.": These actions include maintaining written affirmative action plans containing goals and timetables for correcting deficiencies in equal employment opportunity. .."

The authors of one study cited by Jacobsen conclude that “affirmative action has had a modest effect in increasing white female employment.."
(Jacobsen.The economics of Gender. 2007.)
...-------------------------------------------------------

NOTES ON NORTHERN EUROPE- SPREE KILLINGS


Mass murderer, Brevik of Norway.. 71 dead, most children..

26 killed- mostly little children- Sandy Hook Elementary School- Newton Masschusetts- 2012.
--------------------------------------------

12 Killed- July 2012 Twelve people were killed and nearly 60 others wounded during a midnight showing on Friday of "The Dark Knight Rises." - JUly 2012 Police identified the suspect as James Holmes, 24, who is in custody.
--------------------------------------------------

77 killed in Oslo -- July 22, 2011:

Confessed mass killer Anders Behring Breivik killed 77 in Norway in twin attacks: a bombing in downtown Oslo and a shooting massacre at a youth camp outside the capital. The self-styled anti-Muslim militant admitted both attacks.

-----------------------------

16 killed in Erfurt, Germany -- April 26, 2002:

Robert Steinhaeuser, 19, who had been expelled from school killed 13 teachers, two former classmates and a policeman, before committing suicide. ----------------------------------------------------------------

13 killed at Littleton, Colo. -- April 20, 1999:

Students Eric Harris, 18, and Dylan Klebold, 17, opened fire at Columbine High School, killing 12 classmates and a teacher and wounding 26 others before killing themselves in the school's library.
---------------------------------------------

35 killed in Tasmania, Australia -- April 28, 1996:

Martin Bryant, 29, burst into cafeteria in seaside resort of Port Arthur, shooting 20 people to death. Driving away, he killed 15 others. He was captured and imprisoned. ----------------------------------------------

16 killed in Dunblane, Scotland -- March 13, 1996:

Thomas Hamilton, 43, killed 16 kindergarten children and their teacher in an elementary school then killed himself. ----------------------------------------------------------------

23 killed in Killeen, Texas -- Oct. 16, 1991:

George Hennard opened fire at a Luby's Cafeteria, killing 23 people before taking his own life. Twenty others were wounded in the attack. ----------------------------------------------------------------

21 killed at San Ysidro, Calif. -- July 18, 1984:

James Oliver Huberty (left), an out-of-work security guard, killed 21 people in a McDonald's restaurant. A police sharpshooter killed Huberty. Seven killed at California State University, Fullerton-- July 12, 1976: ----------------------------------------------------------------

16 killed at the University of Texas at Austin -- Aug. 1, 1966: Charles Whitman opened fire from the clock tower at the University of Texas at Austin, killing 16 people and wounding 31.

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[IMG]http://tellysays.files.wordpress.com/2011/04/090420nipcolumbine_5-1240221156079676001.jpg[/IMG]

^^Columbine murderers...

----------------------------------

April 1999 - two teenage schoolboys shot and killed 12 schoolmates and a teacher at Columbine High School in Littleton, Colorado, before killing themselves.

July 1999 - a stock exchange trader in Atlanta, Georgia, killed 12 people including his wife and two children before taking his own life.

September 1999 - a gunman opened fire at a prayer service in Fort Worth, Texas, killing six people before committing suicide.

August 2003 - in Chicago, a laid-off worker shot and killed six of his former workmates.

November 2004 - in Birchwood, Wisconsin, a hunter killed six other hunters and wounded two others after an argument with them.

March 2005 - a man opened fire at a church service in Brookfield, Wisconsin, killing seven people.

October 2006 - a truck driver killed five schoolgirls and seriously wounded six others in a school in Nickel Mines, Pennsylvania before taking his own life.

December 2007 - a 20-year-old man killed nine people and injured five others in a shopping center in Omaha, Nebraska.

December 2007 - a woman and her boyfriend shot dead six members of her family on Christmas Eve in Carnation, Washington.

February 2008 - a man opened fire in a lecture hall at Northern Illinois University in DeKalb, Illinois, killing five students and wounding 16 others before laying down his weapon and surrendering.

September 2008 - a mentally ill man who was released from jail one month earlier shot eight people in Alger, Washington, leaving six of them dead and the rest two wounded.

December 2008 - a man dressed in a Santa Claus suit opened fire at a family Christmas party in Covina, California, then set fire on the house and killed himself. Police later found nine people dead in the debris of the house.

March 2009 - a 28-year-old laid-off worker opened fire while driving a car through several towns in Alabama, killing 10 people.

March 2009 - a heavily armed gunman shot dead eight people, many of them elderly and sick people, in a private-owned nursing home in North Carolina.

March 2009 - six people were shot dead in a high-grade apartment building in Santa Clara, California.

April 2009 - a man shot dead 13 people at a civic center in Binghamton, New York.

February 2010 – A professor opened fire 50 minutes into at a Biological Sciences Department faculty meeting at the University of Alabama, killing three colleagues and wounding three others.

January 2011 - a gunman opened fire at a public gathering outside a grocery in Tucson, Arizona, killing six people including a 9-year-old girl and wounding at least 12 others. Congresswoman Gabrielle Giffords was severely injured with a gunshot to the head.

How could we forget Ted Kaczynski aka the Unabomber?

Andrew Philip Kehoe (February 1, 1872 – May 18, 1927) was an American mass murderer who perpetrated the Bath School Disaster on May 18, 1927.

The Erfurt massacre was a school massacre that occurred on April 26, 2002 at the Gutenberg-Gymnasium in Erfurt, Germany. The gunman, 19-year-old expelled student Robert Steinhäuser, shot and killed 16 people; comprising 13 faculty members, 2 students, and one police officer, before committing suicide. One person was also wounded by a bullet fragment.

The Winnenden school shooting occurred on the morning of 11 March 2009 at a secondary school in Winnenden, Baden-Württemberg, in southwestern Germany, followed by a shootout at a car dealership in nearby Wendlingen.[1][5] The shooting spree resulted in 16 deaths, including the suicide of the perpetrator, 17-year-old Tim Kretschmer, who had graduated from the school one year earlier.[1] Another 11 persons were injured during the incident.

Marc Lépine (October 26, 1964 – December 6, 1989) was a 25-year-old from Montreal, Canada who murdered fourteen women[1] at the École Polytechnique, an engineering school affiliated with the Université de Montréal, in the "École Polytechnique massacre", also known as the "Montreal Massacre".[2][3]

The Cologne school massacre occurred in a Catholic elementary school located at Volkhovener Weg 209 in the suburb of Volkhoven in Cologne, Germany on June 11, 1964. Walter Seifert, born on June 11, 1922, killed eight students and two teachers.

The Kauhajoki school shooting was a school shooting that occurred on 23 September 2008, at Seinäjoki University of Applied Sciences[4] in Kauhajoki, a city in Western Finland. The gunman, 22-year-old hospitality management student[5] Matti Juhani Saari, shot and fatally injured ten people with a semi-automatic pistol, before shooting himself in the head. He died a few hours later in Tampere University Hospital.[6] One woman was injured but was in a stable condition.

The Jokela school massacre was a school shooting that occurred on November 7, 2007, at Jokela High School in Jokela, a town in the municipality of Tuusula, Finland. The gunman, 18-year-old student Pekka-Eric Auvinen, entered the school on that morning armed with a semi-automatic pistol. He killed eight people and wounded one person in the toe before shooting himself in the head. He died later that evening in a Helsinki hospital. Less than one year after the Jokela school massacre, another school shooting occurred in Kauhajoki, where a gunman shot and killed 10 people before killing himself.

The Cleveland School massacre (also known as the Stockton schoolyard shooting) occurred on January 17, 1989, at Cleveland Elementary School at 20 East Fulton Street in Stockton, California, United States. The gunman, Patrick Purdy, who had a long criminal history, shot and killed five schoolchildren, and wounded 29 other schoolchildren and one teacher, before committing suicide. His victims were predominantly Southeast Asian refugees.

The Northern Illinois University shooting was a school shooting that took place on February 14, 2008, during which Steven Kazmierczak shot multiple people on the campus of Northern Illinois University in DeKalb, Illinois, United States, killing five and injuring twenty-one, before committing suicide.

THESE TWO WERE ONLY 11 AND 13 SMH- Mitchell Scott Johnson (born August 11, 1984) and Andrew Douglas Golden (born May 25, 1986) are former middle school students who on March 24, 1998 committed a massacre at Westside Middle School in unincorporated Craighead County, Arkansas, United States, near Jonesboro.[1] A total of five people, four female students and a teacher, were killed. Ten people, nine students and one teacher, were injured. This was the deadliest massacre at a United States middle school.

Charles Carl Roberts IV (December 7, 1973 – October 2, 2006) was an American milk truck driver who murdered five Amish girls and injured five others before killing himself in an Amish school in the hamlet of Nickel Mines, in Bart Township, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania on October 2, 2006.

The Bremen school shooting was a school shooting that occurred on June 20, 1913 at St. Mary's Catholic School (St.-Marien-Schule) in Walle, a quarter of Bremen, Germany. The gunman, 29-year-old unemployed teacher Heinz Schmidt from Sülze, indiscriminately shot at students and teachers, causing the death of five girls and wounding more than 20 other people, before being subdued by school staff.[1][2][3][4]

Kipland Philip "Kip" Kinkel (born August 30, 1982) is an American spree killer. In May 1998, at the age of 15, he murdered his parents and engaged in a school shooting at Thurston High School in Springfield, Oregon that left two students dead and 22 others wounded.[1] He is serving a 111-year sentence, without the possibility of parole.

The Dendermonde nursery attack was a stabbing attack on the Fabeltjesland daycare centre in the village of Sint-Gillis-bij-Dendermonde in Dendermonde, Belgium, at 10:00 a.m. CET (9:00 a.m. UTC) on 23 January 2009. Three people were stabbed to death,[1] and twelve were mutilated in the attack.[2] The suspect has been linked to a separate murder of an elderly lady and police have suggested he was plotting more nursery attacks.

The Lindhurst High School shooting was a school shooting and subsequent siege that occurred on May 1, 1992 at Lindhurst High School in Olivehurst, California, United States. The gunman, 20-year-old[1] Eric Houston, was a former student at Lindhurst High School. Houston killed three students and one teacher, and wounded nine students and a teacher before surrendering to police.

The Vilnius school massacre was a school massacre that occurred at Joachim Lelewel high school in Wilno, Poland on May 6, 1925. At about 11 a.m., during the final exams, at least two eighth-grade students attacked the board of examiners with revolvers and hand grenades, killing at least one teacher, several students and themselves.[1][2]

The Olean High School shooting was a school shooting that occurred on December 30, 1974 at Olean High School in Olean, New York, United States. The gunman, 17-year-old Anthony Barbaro, an honor student and member of the school's rifle team, indiscriminately shot at people on the street from windows at the third floor of the school building. Three people were killed and another 11 people were injured during the shooting.[1][2]

On November 1, 1975, Anthony Barbaro hanged himself in his prison cell at the Cattaraugus County Jail.

The Brampton Centennial Secondary School shooting was a school shooting that occurred at Brampton Centennial Secondary School in Brampton, Ontario, Canada on May 28, 1975.

The incident began when 16-year-old Michael Slobodian[1] brought two rifles to school in a guitar case. He was angry at his physics teacher Mr. Bronson because he had failed him in physics, and wanted revenge. He wanted to get into medical school and his grades did not allow it. However, he was unable to make it to his physics teacher's classroom located on the third floor.

Slobodian began firing in a boys' washroom.[2] Slobodian first killed fellow student John Slinger in the washroom. He later entered an art classroom and killed English teacher Margaret Wright, and wounded 13 students inside the classroom. Slobodian then committed suicide in a hallway adjacent to the art classroom

Charles Andrew "Andy" Williams (born February 8, 1986) is an American who, as a teenager perpetrated the shooting at Santana High School on March 5, 2001. In the shooting two students were killed and thirteen others were wounded. Williams is currently serving life in prison without the possibility of parole for 50 years.

On 20 November 2006, at about 9:30 AM local time, 18 year old Bastian Bosse (born 29 April, 1988), who had graduated from the school in 2005, entered the Geschwister Scholl School (a Realschule), firing several shots and setting off smoke grenades. He shot the school janitor and four students and wounded a teacher by throwing a smoke bomb into her face. Additionally 16 police officers had to be treated for respiratory problems due to smoke inhalation and 15 students suffered from shock. Bosse killed himself by a shot into the mouth at 10.36am. He had left an Internet posting and a video message from his parents' living room shortly before the attack. The shooter stated that he hated people and was taught to be a "loser" at his school.[2][3] He also left a suicide note on his website, which has since been deleted.

William Michael Stankewicz in 2001 entered an elementary school with a machete and injured about 13 people. The San Ysidro McDonald's massacre was an incident of mass murder that occurred on July 18, 1984, in a McDonald's restaurant in the San Ysidro section of San Diego, California. The shootings resulted in 21 people killed and 19 others injured.

The Luby's massacre was a mass murder that took place on October 16, 1991, in Killeen, Texas, United States when George Hennard[1] drove his pickup truck into a Luby's cafeteria and shot 23 people to death while wounding another 20, subsequently committing suicide by shooting himself. It was the deadliest shooting rampage in American history until the 2007 Virginia Tech massacre.

Howard Barton Unruh (January 21, 1921 – October 19, 2009) was an American mass murderer[2][3] (sometimes classified as a spree killer[4]) who killed 13 people on September 6, 1949, in Camden, New Jersey, when he was 28 years old. Unruh is considered the first single-episode mass murderer in U.S. history.[5] He died in 2009 after a lengthy illness at the age of 88. The incident became known as the "Walk of Death".[1]

Charles Raymond Starkweather (November 24, 1938 – June 25, 1959)[1] was an American teenaged spree killer[2] who murdered eleven people in Nebraska and Wyoming during a two-month road trip with his 14-year-old girlfriend, Caril Ann Fugate. The couple was captured on January 29, 1958. Starkweather was executed seventeen months later, while Fugate served 17 years in prison.[3]

The Geneva County massacre, which occurred on March 10, 2009, spanned at least two communities, Geneva and Samson in Geneva County, Alabama, USA, and resulted in the death of 11 people, including the 28 year old gunman, Michael Kenneth McLendon.[3] The victims included members of the McLendon family; he also burned down his mother's house in the town of Kinston, Alabama.[5] When law enforcement reached him, McLendon was shot and killed, though it was initially unclear whether the shot was self-inflicted.[6] Later reports said he committed suicide.

The Salina, Utah, Prisoners of War massacre caused the death of nine German prisoners of war and the injury of 20 more. The incident happened on the night of July 7–July 8, 1945, two months after the German surrender. Private Clarence V. Bertucci (September 14, 1921 - December 1969) returned to the camp from a night of drinking, and relieved the guard of the tower nearest the commanding officer's cabin. He proceeded to load and fire a .30 caliber Watercooled Browning machine gun into the German prisoners' tents. Within thirty seconds of the start, his belt of 250 rounds was expended. Nine were killed and 20 were injured.

Salina was the home of some 250 German prisoners of war (both from Wehrmacht and Waffen-SS) who were being used as workers on the local harvest. At the time of the incident the prisoners were waiting to be repatriated.

101 California Street Shootings is the name given to a mass shooting that took place July 1, 1993 in San Francisco, California, claiming the lives of nine people, including the shooter. The killings sparked a number of legal and legislative actions that were precursors to the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act, H.R.3355, 103rd Congress (1994). The Act took effect in 1994, and expired on September 13, 2004, through the operation of a sunset provision.

The Westroads Mall shooting was a murder-suicide that occurred on Wednesday, December 5, 2007, at the Von Maur department store in the Westroads Mall in Omaha, Nebraska, United States. Nineteen-year-old Robert A. Hawkins killed nine people (including himself) and wounded four, two of them critically.[4] It was the deadliest shooting spree in Nebraska since the rampage of Charles Starkweather in 1958.[5] Carl Robert Brown (November 26, 1930 – August 20, 1982) was an American teacher and mass murderer who killed eight people and injured another three with a shotgun in a Miami, Florida welding shop on August 20, 1982. He was later fatally shot and run down by two witnesses, when cycling away from the crime scene.

The Carthage nursing home shooting was a mass murder that occurred on March 29, 2009, when a gunman opened fire at the Pinelake Health and Rehab nursing home in Carthage, North Carolina. The shooter, 45-year-old Robert Stewart, killed eight people and wounded another two before being shot and apprehended by a responding police officer.[1] Stewart's estranged wife, a nurse at the nursing home and the apparent main target, survived the shooting unharmed, as she was hiding in a bathroom in the Alzheimer ward of the building, which is secured by passcode-protected doors.[2]

The Seal Beach shooting was a mass shooting that occurred on October 12, 2011, at the Salon Meritage hair salon in Seal Beach, California. Eight people inside the salon and one person in the parking lot were shot, and only one victim survived. It was the deadliest mass killing in Orange County history.

Nicholas Troy Sheley (born July 31, 1979[1]) is an American ex-convict accused of eight murders across four towns in Illinois and Missouri. He was arrested on July 1, 2008 in Granite City, Illinois. A $25,000 reward was offered for information leading to his arrest. Federal authorities charged him with unlawful flight to avoid prosecution.[2]

Larry Gene Ashbrook (July 10, 1952[1] – September 15, 1999) was an American mass murderer. On September 15, 1999, he murdered seven people and injured a further seven at a post See You at the Pole Rally featuring a concert by Christian rock group Forty Days at Wedgwood Baptist Church in Fort Worth, Texas. Ashbrook then committed suicide.

Terry Michael Ratzmann was an American mass murderer who killed seven members of the Living Church of God (LCG) before committing suicide at a Sheraton Hotel in Brookfield, Wisconsin in 2005. Jared Lee Loughner (play /?l?fn?r/; born September 10, 1988)[1] is an American citizen charged with the shooting in Tucson, Arizona, on January 8, 2011, that killed six people, including Chief U.S. District Court Judge John Roll. The shooting also left 14 others injured, including U.S. Representative Gabrielle Giffords.[2] He has been indicted on 49 counts by federal grand juries in Arizona.[3][4]

The Capitol Hill massacre was a mass murder committed by 28-year-old Kyle Aaron Huff in the southeast part of Seattle's Capitol Hill neighborhood. On the morning of Saturday, March 25, 2006, Huff entered a rave afterparty and opened fire, killing six and wounding two. He then killed himself as he was being confronted by police on the front porch of 2112 E. Republican Street.

The Crandon, Wisconsin shooting was a mass murder that occurred about 2:45 a.m. CDT on October 7, 2007, at a post-homecoming party inside a duplex in Crandon, Wisconsin, United States.[2] The perpetrator, 20-year-old Tyler Peterson, who was a full-time deputy in the Forest County Sheriff's Department and a part-time officer at the Crandon Police Department, shot and killed six people and critically injured a seventh before committing suicide.

1965 Highway 101 sniper attack by teenager Michael Clark.

The 2009 Collier Township shooting, also referred to as the 2009 Bridgeville LA Fitness shooting, was a murder-suicide that took place on August 4, 2009 in an LA Fitness health club in Collier Township, a suburb of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The attack resulted in four deaths, including that of the perpetrator who took his own life. Nine other people were injured.[1]


Joint products of "racial evolution"...


LINKS TO OTHER POSTS:


Go with the flow 3- more DNA and cranial studies show ancient African migration to, or African presence in ancient Europe
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2016/04/go-with-flow-3-more-dna-and-cranial.html


Go with the flow 2- African gene flow into Europe in various eras
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2015/11/go-with-flow-2-african-gene-flow-into.html

DNA studies show African movement to Europe from very ancient times
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2015/09/dna-studies-show-african-movement-to.html

Guilt3- Why the "white privilege industry" is not all there
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2015/09/guilt3-why-white-privilege-industry-is.html

Guilt2- Media collaborates with guilt mongers - or how to play the white victim card
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2015/09/guilt2-media-collaborates-with-guilt.html


How Obama plays on white guilt- Hilary capitalizes
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2015/08/how-obama-plays-upon-white-guilt-hilary.html

Hands off the Confederate flag
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2015/06/hands-off-confederate-flag.html

Despite much more wealth than blacks, whites collect about the same rate of welfare and are treated more generously
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2015/06/despite-much-more-wealth-than-blacks.html

African "boat people" ushering in European demographic decline
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2015/05/african-boat-people-ushering-in.html


The forgotten Holocaust- King Leopold's "Congo Free State" - 10 million victims
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2015/04/the-forgotten-holocaust-10-million-in.html

Are violent minorities taking over California and the West?
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2015/04/are-violent-minorities-taking-over.html

Presidential hopeful Ben Carson meets and Greeks
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2015/03/presidential-hopeful-ben-carson-meet.html

Contra "ISIS" partisans, there have been some beneficial effects of Christianity
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2015/03/contra-isis-partisans-there-are-some.html


The social construction of race, compared to biology- Graves
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2015/02/the-social-construction-of-race_8.html

 Why HBD or hereditarianism lacks credibility
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/10/why-hbd-or-hereditarianism-lacks.html

Leading Scientists criticize hereditarian claims
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/08/leading-scientists-criticize.html

Thai me down - Thais fall behind genetically related southern Chinese, Tibetans below genetically related East Asians like Koreans and other Chinese
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/08/thai-me-up-thai-me-down.html

Time for liberals to respect "the south" ... in a way of speaking.. the south of Egypt that is..
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/08/time-for-liberals-to-respect-south-in.html

Irony 2: touted High IQ "G-men" cannot reproduce themselves 
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/07/irony-2-higher-iqs-correlated-with_25.html


Unz and Sowell: Unz debunking Lynn's IQ and Wealth of Nations. Sowell debunking the Bell Curve
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/07/unz-and-sowell-unz-debunking-lynns-iq.html

Irony 1: touted High IQ types are more homosexual, more atheist, and more liberal (HAL)
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/06/irony-high-iqs-produce-more-atheists.html


Elite white universities discriminate against Asians using reverse "affirmative action"
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/06/elite-white-universities-discriminate.html

Deteriorating state of white America
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/05/deteriorating-state-of-white-america.html


Racial Cartels (The Affirmative Action Propaganda machine- part 2
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/05/the-affirmative-action-propaganda.html

Hereditarian's/HBD's "Great Black Hope"
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/04/blog-post.html


Exploding nonsense: the 10,000 Year Explosion
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/03/exploding-nonsense-review-of-cochran_8.html


We need "rational racism"? Proponent Dinesh D;Souza becomes his own test case
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/01/we-need-rational-racism-proponent.html

The Affirmative Action Propaganda Machine- part 1
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/01/the-affirmatve-action-propaganda.html

Two rules for being "really" black- no white wimmen, no Republican
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/01/to-be-really-black-you-cant-have-white.html

The Axial age reconsidered - or latitude not attitide
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/01/the-axial-age-reconsidered.html

Cannibal seasonings: dark meat on white
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2013/12/i.html

"Affirmative Action" in the form of court remedies has been around a long time- since the 1930s- benefiting white union workers against discrimination by employers
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2013/09/affirmative-action-as-term-appears-in.html

Mugged by reality 1: White quotas, special preferences and government jobs
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2013/06/mugged-by-reality-1-white-quotas.html


Lightweight enforcement of EEO laws contradicts claims of "flood" of minorities "taking jobs"
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2013/06/blog-post.html

Railroaded 3: white violence and intimidation imposed quotas
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2013/06/railroaded-3-white-violence-and.html

Railroaded 2: how white quotas and special preferences blockade black progress...
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2013/06/railroaded-2-thow-white-quotas-and.html

Railroaded 1: How white affirmative action and white special preferences destroyed black railroad employment...
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2013/06/railroaded-how-white-affirmative-action.html

Affirmative action: primary beneficiaries are white women...
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2011/04/quick-regime-kill-hopes-in-libya.html

7 reasons certain libertarians and right-wingers are wrong about the Civil Right Act
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2012/05/7-reasons-libertarians-may-be-wrong.html

Social philosophy of Thomas Sowell
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2011/07/social-philosophy-of-thomas-sowell.html



Bogus "biodiversity" theories of Kanazawa, Ruston, Lynn debunked
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2010/09/blog-post.html

JP Rushton, Michael Levin, Richard Lynn debunked. Weaknesses of Jared Diamond's approach. 
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2010/04/blog-post_1818.html

In the Blood- debunking "HBD" and Neo-Nazi appropriation of ancient Egypt
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2009/11/blog-post_29.html

early Europeans and middle Easterners looked like Africans. Peoples returning or "backflowing" to Africa would already be looking like Africans
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2010/05/blog-post_1754.html

 Ancient Egypt: one of the world's most advanced civilizations- created by tropical peoples
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2010/09/blog-post_06.html

Playing the "Greek defence" -debunking claims of Greeks as paragons of virtue or exemplars of goodness
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2013/03/playing-greek-defence-review-of-thornton.html

Quotations from mainstream academic research on the Nile Valley peoples
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2010/04/blog-post_9251.html

Assorted data debunking
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2009/11/blog-post_5570.html




Evolution, brain size, and the national IQ of peoples ... - Jelte Wicherts 2010
http://wicherts.socsci.uva.nl/wichertsPAIDrejoinder.pdf
------------------------------------

Why national IQs do not support evolutionary theories of intelligence - WIcherts, Borsboom and Dolan 2010
Personality and Individual Differences 48 (2010) 91-96
http://wicherts.socsci.uva.nl/wicherts2010.pdf
----------------------------- -------------

Are intelligence tests measurement invariant over time? by JM Wicherts - ?2004
 --Dolan, Wicherts et al 2004. Investigating the nature of the Flynn effect. Intelligence 32 (2004) 509-537
http://www.iapsych.com/iqmr/fe/LinkedDocuments/wicherts2004.pdf
-------------------------------------------

LYNN AND VANHAVEN'S IQ AND THE WEALTH OF NATIONS DEBUNKED
---------------- -------

www.anth.uconn.edu/faculty/mcbrearty/Pdf/McB%20&%20Brooks%202000%20TRTW.pdf

------------------------

Race and other misadventures: essays in honor of Ashley Montagu... By Larry T. Reynolds, Leonard Lieberman

http://books.google.com/books?id=5DLrgG_MflgC&pg=PA190&dq=r-+k-+selection+races&cd=1#v=onepage&q=r-%20k-%20selection%20races&f=false
--------------------------------

Race and intelligence: separating science from myth. By Jefferson M. Fish. Routledge 2002. See Templeton's detailed article referenced above also inside the book

http://books.google.com/books?id=t9OdPPLIgMAC&pg=PA64&dq=r-+k-+selection+races&cd=7#v=onepage&q=r-%20k-%20selection%20races&f=false
------------------------

http://www.ogiek.org/indepth/what-they-mean.htm
---------------- -------

Oubre, A (2011) Race Genes and Ability: Rethinking Ethnic Differences, vol 1 and 2. BTI Press
For summary see: http://www.skeptic.com/eskeptic/05-02-18/
---------------- -------

http://www.dartmouth.edu/~chance/course/topics/curveball.html

-----------------------------------------------------------

--S OY Keita, R A Kittles, et al. "Conceptualizing human variation," Nature Genetics 36, S17 - S20 (2004)
http://www.nature.com/ng/journal/v36/n11s/pdf/ng1455.pdf


--S.O.Y. Keita and Rick Kittles. (1997) *The Persistence ofRacial Thinking and the Myth of Racial Divergence. AJPA, 99:3
http://www.councilforresponsiblegenetics.org/pageDocuments/WAURRSZQOE.pdf
---------------- -------

HBD RACE EVOLUTION CLAIMS DEBUNKED BY GENETICISTS
Alan Templeton. "The Genetic and Evolutionary significnce oF Human Races." pp 31-56. IN: J. FiSh (2002) Race and Intelligence: Separating scinnce from myth.
http://img560.imageshack.us/img560/239/templeton1humanracesinf.jpg
http://img685.imageshack.us/img685/2731/templeton2humanracesinf.jpg

HBD RACE AND INTELLIGENCE CLAIMS DEBUNKED
 J. FiSh (2002) Race and Intelligence: Separating science from myth.

------------------------------------------



MORE HBD DEBUNKING
-------------------------------- ---------------------

Oubre, A (2011) Race Genes and Ability: Rethinking Ethnic Differences, vol 1 and 2. BTI Press
----------------------------------------------

Krimsky, S, Sloan.K (2011) Race and the Genetic Revolution: Science, Myth, and Culture
-------------------------------


Wicherts and Johnson, 2009. Group differences in the heritability of items and test scores
http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/early/2009/04/24/rspb.2009.0238.full



--Joseph Graves, 2006. What We Know and What We Don’t Know: Human Genetic Variation and the Social Construction of Race
http://raceandgenomics.ssrc.org/Graves/

J. Kahn (2013) How a Drug Becomes "Ethnic" - Yale Journal of Health Policy, Law and Ethics, v4:1
http://digitalcommons.law.yale.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1072&context=yjhple

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http://evolution.binghamton.edu/evos/wp-content/uploads/2012/04/PageProofs-Graves_race.pdf


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