Sunday, April 25, 2010

Oxford encyclopedia of ancient Egypt confirms African foundation of ancient Egyptian civilization - African Americans have no right to study Egypt




[b]Conservative mainstream Oxford

Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt slams
diffusionism of 'Afrocentrists' - shows
ancient Egypt derived from an African
cultural sub-stratum[/b]

[QUOTE:]

[i]"The evidence also points to linkages to
other northeast African peoples, not
coincidentally approximating the modern
range of languages closely related to
Egyptian in the Afro-Asiatic group
(formerly called Hamito-Semetic). These
linguistic similarities place ancient
Egyptian in a close relationship with
languages spoken today as far west as
Chad, and as far south as Somalia.
Archaeological evidence also strongly
supports an African origin. A widespread
northeastern African cultural assemblage,
including distinctive multiple barbed
harpoons and pottery decorated with
dotted wavy line patterns, appears during
the early Neolithic (also known as the
Aqualithic, a reference to the mild
climate of the Sahara at this time).
Saharan and Sudanese rock art from this
time resembles early Egyptian
iconography. Strong connections
between Nubian (Sudanese) and
Egyptian material culture continue in
later Neolithic Badarian culture of Upper
Egypt. Similarities include black-topped
wares, vessels with characteristic
ripple-burnished surfaces, a special
tulip-shaped vessel with incised and
white-filled decoration, palettes, and
harpoons...

Other ancient Egyptian practices show
strong similarities to modern African
cultures including divine kingship, the
use of headrests, body art, circumcision,
and male coming-of-age rituals, all
suggesting an African substratum or
foundation for Egyptian civilization
(rather than diffusion from sub-Saharan
Africa, as claimed by some Afrocentric
scholars.)"[/i]

Source: The Oxford encyclopedia of ancient Egypt,
Volume 3. Oxford University Press. p. 28
Donald Redford (ed).


Review:
The article's use of the
term “sub-Saharan” is curious. the
Sahara fluctuated its boundaries
numerous times over history - at one
point it covered one-third of Africa -
said boundaries are not where they
are now. So exactly from what point the
alleged “diffusion” claimed by
“Afrocentrists” is taking place remains a
mystery.

And if ancient Egypt civilization rests on
an African substratum as freely admitted
by the conservative mainstream authors,
doesn’t that include “sub-Saharan”
Africa?

Some have argued that that
African-Americans Should not “interfere”
with Nile Valley history, and have “no
connection” to said history, and
self-styled “concerned” Egyptians, both
bogus and real sometimes put in an
apparent appearance to lecture said
‘African Americans.” or “Black
Americans.” But if the conservative
mainstream reference itself shows that
numerous ancient Egyptian cultural links
and similarities to other parts of “Black
Africa”, including MODERN African
cultures, how come African Americans
are supposed to sit quietly and say
nothing?

“African Americans" are not obsessively
tracing their history back to Egypt as
alleged by assorted blowhards and pundits.
They don't need to any such tracing, nor do
they need "permission" from self-styled
Arab nativists, alleged Egyptian
natives/nativists, or white people to study
and comment on Egypt.

The Sahara was once a lush greenbelt
extending across one-third of Africa,
allowing the easy movement of peoples.
Its climatic cycles - the famous Saharan
"pump" - was to create conditions for the
movement of peoples into the Nile
Valley, the Sahelian zone and elsewhere.
But it remains the foundation.

Informed African-Americans thus do not
conceive of Egypt as being created out of
thin air. Nor do they rely on the truism
that "Egypt is in Africa."
They begin at the Saharan zone, which
provided the main source for the
peopling of the Nile Valley, and laid the
foundation, and was the genesis of the
Nile Valley Civilization.

As far as peopling:
The Sahara is the key, the starting point,
the genesis, the fundamental force. Egypt
follows AFTER and derives from that broad Saharan
foundation, not before. There is no need to seek
"inspiration" from Rameses or Cleopatra.
The "inspiration" springs from the starting point,
the African cultures that gave rise to the Egyptian
dynastic civilization. It is from that genesis, that
launching point, that other developments are appreciated,
in all their continuity.

[b][Quote by another conservative
mainstream scholar:][/b]

"There is now a sufficient body of
evidence from modern studies of skeletal
remains to indicate that the ancient
Egyptians, especially southern Egyptians,
exhibited physical characteristics that are
within the range of variation for ancient
and modern indigenous peoples of the
Sahara and tropical Africa.." (Nancy C.
Lovell, " Egyptians, physical
anthropology of," in Encyclopedia of the
Archaeology of Ancient Egypt, ed.
Kathryn A. Bard and Steven Blake
Shubert, ( London and New York:
Routledge, 1999) pp 328-332)


The Sahara was also a key player in the
great West African civilizations that were
to arise as well- Mali, Ghana, Timbuktu
etc., ranging from the Saharan trade, to
the transmission of knowledge to the
transmission of new methods and
technologies such as use of the horse in
warfare where the environment permitted
it.

The Sahara is the great linking pin and
transmission belt culturally. It is also the
great climate and environmental motor
that shaped one-third of Africa. As one
study notes:

From:
Climate-Controlled Holocene
Occupation in the Sahara: Motor of
Africa's Evolution
by Rudolph Kuper and Stefan Kröpelin*

[i]”Radiocarbon data from 150
archaeological excavations in the now
hyper-arid Eastern Sahara of Egypt,
Sudan, Libya, and Chad reveal close
links between climatic variations and
prehistoric occupation during the past
12,000 years. Synoptic multiple-indicator
views for major time slices demonstrate
the transition from initial settlement after
the sudden onset of humid conditions at
8500 B.C.E. to the exodus resulting from
gradual desiccation since 5300 B.C.E.
Southward shifting of the desert margin
helped trigger the emergence of
pharaonic civilization along the Nile,
influenced the spread of pastoralism
throughout the continent, and affects
sub-Saharan Africa to the present
day.”[/i]


Informed African Americans place Egypt
in its proper context as a tropical
civilization. They don’t begin any
exploration of African civilizations with
Egypt, they start with AFRICA ITSELF,
from which the genesis, the foundational
elements sprung, that provided the
basis or substratum for that civilization.
The Sahara is one such central
foundational element.

There are other
“African Americans” who look even
further back than the Saharan mix
mentioned above. They look back to the
dawn of modern humanity, which
emerged from “sub-Saharan” Africa, then
proceeded to Northeast Africa, and from
there to the rest of the globe by various
exit routes. Again, the starting point for
any discussion remains AFRICA itself.

[quote]:
“These studies suggest a recent and
primary subdivision between African and
non-African populations, high levels of
divergence among African populations,
and a recent shared common ancestry of
non-African populations, from a
population originating in Africa. ...
populations in northeastern Africa may
have diverged from those in the rest of
sub-Saharan Africa early in the history of
modern African populations and that a
subset of this northeastern-African
population migrated out of Africa and
populated the rest of the globe. These
conclusions are supported by recent
mtDNA analysis (Quintana-Murci et al.
1999)."
[Tishkoff et al. (2000) Short
Tandem-Repeat Polymorphism.. Am J
Hum Genet; 67:901-925]


African-Americans thus don't need
anyone to tell them how they "should"
think about Egypt, the Nile Valley, the
Sahara or any other part of Africa, nor
do they need "clearance" or "approval"
from would be, reputed or alleged
"concerned Egyptians" or presumptuous
white lecturers to place Egypt in its
scientifically documented African context.


-
Some have been disturbed by the conservative encyclopedia noting that the languages spoken
by the ancient Egyptians are related to languages spoken as far away as Chad and Somalia.

As evidence of a "racial" divide between peoples of the Nile Valley, they proffer
the notion that the "Nubians" spoke a Nilo-Saharan language, and the" Egyptians"
Afrasan languages. So there must be some kind of "race divide".
This of course is complete nonsense for 4 reasons:
-


1) The Nilo-Saharan language extends
into parts of Upper Egypt, (Adams 1982)
not simply the Sudan/Nubia.
This
undermines the bogus picture they paint
of a neat "Racial" divide between the
Sudan and Egypt. In fact the Nubians
and Egyptians were ethnically the closest
people. Some spoke Nilo-Saharan, and
some Egyptian, Nothing at all unusual
about that as a common pattern of
human existence.


2) Different groups of Nubians are well
documented in the literature, even ancient
literature. The notion that there was this
monolithic group of "Nubians" all speaking the
same Nilo-Saharan languages, in "racial"
separation from Egypt is rubbish.


There were different groups of Egytians (oasis
dwellers etc for example) and different groups of
Nubians. They are one continuity though. For
example the annals of Weni the elder states:

"When his majesty took action against
the Asiatic sand-dwellers, his majesty
made an army of many tens of thousands
from all of Upper Egypt: ...; from Lower
Egypt: ...; and from Irtjet-Nubians,
Medja-Nubians, Yam-Nubians,
Wawat-Nubians, Kaau-Nubians; and
from Tjemeh-land."




3) There is an element of hypocrisy
in the 'Aryan language model". In
Europe, the white Basques speak a
language that is not the Indo-European
languages spoken by most other white
people in Europe. Yet they fully accept
that Basques are white Europeans. But
when the same situation rises in the African Nile
valley
- well oh no! Can't have that. There
must be some weird "racial" hierarchy or
"wandering Caucasoids" involved to
"explain" that situation. Many it appears
have no problem with European diversity,
but when in comes to
Africa they want to impose all sorts of
biased double standards.


4) Finally, different groups of people
living together with different language
families is nothing at all unusual on earth.
The Basques are an example in Europe,
but in India they have been doing it for
millennia. Speakers of the Dravidian
languages live in the same nation with
speakers of the
Indo-European/Indo-Aryan languages
for thousands of years.
They live side by
side and genetically they are all Asiatics.
Few thinking people would find that
unusual, It is only in Africa seemingly, that
curiously different standards are applied.



Joint products of "racial evolution"...




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OTHER LINKS
Race, IQ, and Wealth: What the facts tell us about a taboo subject By Ron Unz


HBD EVOLUTION, BRAIN SIZE AND NATIONAL IQ CLAIMS DEBUNKED
Evolution, brain size, and the national IQ of peoples ... - Jelte Wicherts 2010
http://wicherts.socsci.uva.nl/wichertsPAIDrejoinder.pdf
------------------------------------

Why national IQs do not support evolutionary theories of intelligence - WIcherts, Borsboom and Dolan 2010
Personality and Individual Differences 48 (2010) 91-96
http://wicherts.socsci.uva.nl/wicherts2010.pdf
----------------------------- -------------

Are intelligence tests measurement invariant over time? by JM Wicherts - ?2004
 --Dolan, Wicherts et al 2004. Investigating the nature of the Flynn effect. Intelligence 32 (2004) 509-537
http://www.iapsych.com/iqmr/fe/LinkedDocuments/wicherts2004.pdf
-------------------------------------------

LYNN AND VANHAVEN'S IQ AND THE WEALTH OF NATIONS DEBUNKED
---------------- -------

www.anth.uconn.edu/faculty/mcbrearty/Pdf/McB%20&%20Brooks%202000%20TRTW.pdf

------------------------

Race and other misadventures: essays in honor of Ashley Montagu... By Larry T. Reynolds, Leonard Lieberman

http://books.google.com/books?id=5DLrgG_MflgC&pg=PA190&dq=r-+k-+selection+races&cd=1#v=onepage&q=r-%20k-%20selection%20races&f=false
--------------------------------

Race and intelligence: separating science from myth. By Jefferson M. Fish. Routledge 2002. See Templeton's detailed article referenced above also inside the book

http://books.google.com/books?id=t9OdPPLIgMAC&pg=PA64&dq=r-+k-+selection+races&cd=7#v=onepage&q=r-%20k-%20selection%20races&f=false
------------------------

http://www.ogiek.org/indepth/what-they-mean.htm
---------------- -------

Oubre, A (2011) Race Genes and Ability: Rethinking Ethnic Differences, vol 1 and 2. BTI Press
For summary see: http://www.skeptic.com/eskeptic/05-02-18/
---------------- -------

http://www.dartmouth.edu/~chance/course/topics/curveball.html

-----------------------------------------------------------

--S OY Keita, R A Kittles, et al. "Conceptualizing human variation," Nature Genetics 36, S17 - S20 (2004)
http://www.nature.com/ng/journal/v36/n11s/pdf/ng1455.pdf


--S.O.Y. Keita and Rick Kittles. (1997) *The Persistence ofRacial Thinking and the Myth of Racial Divergence. AJPA, 99:3
http://www.councilforresponsiblegenetics.org/pageDocuments/WAURRSZQOE.pdf
---------------- -------

HBD RACE EVOLUTION CLAIMS DEBUNKED BY GENETICISTS
Alan Templeton. "The Genetic and Evolutionary significnce oF Human Races." pp 31-56. IN: J. FiSh (2002) Race and Intelligence: Separating scinnce from myth.

IQ claims and miscellaneous data
HBD RACE AND INTELLIGENCE CLAIMS DEBUNKED
 J. FiSh (2002) Race and Intelligence: Separating science from myth.

------------------------------------------





MORE HBD DEBUNKING
-------------------------------- ---------------------



Oubre, A (2011) Race Genes and Ability: Rethinking Ethnic Differences, vol 1 and 2. BTI Press
----------------------------------------------

Krimsky, S, Sloan.K (2011) Race and the Genetic Revolution: Science, Myth, and Culture
-------------------------------


Wicherts and Johnson, 2009. Group differences in the heritability of items and test scores
http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/early/2009/04/24/rspb.2009.0238.full


http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2013/06/coming-apart-can-murrays-down-with.html


"SELECTION FOR"- "SELECT FOR" HDB CLAIMS DEBUNKED- "SELECTION" IS NOT THE ONLY KEY FORCE DRIVING CHANGE
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2012/12/demic-diffusion-notes-and-tropical.html

http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2012/05/7-reasons-libertarians-may-be-wrong.html

http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2012/08/cro-magnons-are-us-debunking-claims.html

http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/03/exploding-nonsense-review-of-cochran_8.html



--Joseph Graves, 2006. What We Know and What We Don’t Know: Human Genetic Variation and the Social Construction of Race
http://raceandgenomics.ssrc.org/Graves/

J. Kahn (2013) How a Drug Becomes "Ethnic" - Yale Journal of Health Policy, Law and Ethics, v4:1
http://digitalcommons.law.yale.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1072&context=yjhple

------------------------------------ -----------------

http://evolution.binghamton.edu/evos/wp-content/uploads/2012/04/PageProofs-Graves_race.pdf

-------------------------------------------- ----------------------------



other links



Evolution, brain size, and the national IQ of peoples ... - Jelte Wicherts 2010
http://wicherts.socsci.uva.nl/wichertsPAIDrejoinder.pdf
------------------------------------

Why national IQs do not support evolutionary theories of intelligence - WIcherts, Borsboom and Dolan 2010
Personality and Individual Differences 48 (2010) 91-96
http://wicherts.socsci.uva.nl/wicherts2010.pdf
----------------------------- -------------

Are intelligence tests measurement invariant over time? by JM Wicherts - ?2004
 --Dolan, Wicherts et al 2004. Investigating the nature of the Flynn effect. Intelligence 32 (2004) 509-537
http://www.iapsych.com/iqmr/fe/LinkedDocuments/wicherts2004.pdf
-------------------------------------------

LYNN AND VANHAVEN'S IQ AND THE WEALTH OF NATIONS DEBUNKED
---------------- -------

www.anth.uconn.edu/faculty/mcbrearty/Pdf/McB%20&%20Brooks%202000%20TRTW.pdf

------------------------

Race and other misadventures: essays in honor of Ashley Montagu... By Larry T. Reynolds, Leonard Lieberman

http://books.google.com/books?id=5DLrgG_MflgC&pg=PA190&dq=r-+k-+selection+races&cd=1#v=onepage&q=r-%20k-%20selection%20races&f=false
--------------------------------

Race and intelligence: separating science from myth. By Jefferson M. Fish. Routledge 2002. See Templeton's detailed article referenced above also inside the book

http://books.google.com/books?id=t9OdPPLIgMAC&pg=PA64&dq=r-+k-+selection+races&cd=7#v=onepage&q=r-%20k-%20selection%20races&f=false
------------------------

http://www.ogiek.org/indepth/what-they-mean.htm
---------------- -------

Oubre, A (2011) Race Genes and Ability: Rethinking Ethnic Differences, vol 1 and 2. BTI Press
For summary see: http://www.skeptic.com/eskeptic/05-02-18/
---------------- -------

http://www.dartmouth.edu/~chance/course/topics/curveball.html

-----------------------------------------------------------

--S OY Keita, R A Kittles, et al. "Conceptualizing human variation," Nature Genetics 36, S17 - S20 (2004)
http://www.nature.com/ng/journal/v36/n11s/pdf/ng1455.pdf


--S.O.Y. Keita and Rick Kittles. (1997) *The Persistence ofRacial Thinking and the Myth of Racial Divergence. AJPA, 99:3
http://www.councilforresponsiblegenetics.org/pageDocuments/WAURRSZQOE.pdf
---------------- -------

HBD RACE EVOLUTION CLAIMS DEBUNKED BY GENETICISTS
Alan Templeton. "The Genetic and Evolutionary significnce oF Human Races." pp 31-56. IN: J. FiSh (2002) Race and Intelligence: Separating scinnce from myth.


HBD RACE AND INTELLIGENCE CLAIMS DEBUNKED
 J. FiSh (2002) Race and Intelligence: Separating science from myth.

------------------------------------------




MORE HBD DEBUNKING
-------------------------------- ---------------------

Oubre, A (2011) Race Genes and Ability: Rethinking Ethnic Differences, vol 1 and 2. BTI Press
----------------------------------------------

Krimsky, S, Sloan.K (2011) Race and the Genetic Revolution: Science, Myth, and Culture
-------------------------------


Wicherts and Johnson, 2009. Group differences in the heritability of items and test scores
http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/early/2009/04/24/rspb.2009.0238.full


http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2013/06/coming-apart-can-murrays-down-with.html


"SELECTION FOR"- "SELECT FOR" HDB CLAIMS DEBUNKED- "SELECTION" IS NOT THE ONLY KEY FORCE DRIVING CHANGE
http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2012/12/demic-diffusion-notes-and-tropical.html

http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2012/05/7-reasons-libertarians-may-be-wrong.html

http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2012/08/cro-magnons-are-us-debunking-claims.html

http://nilevalleypeoples.blogspot.com/2014/03/exploding-nonsense-review-of-cochran_8.html



--Joseph Graves, 2006. What We Know and What We Don’t Know: Human Genetic Variation and the Social Construction of Race
http://raceandgenomics.ssrc.org/Graves/

J. Kahn (2013) How a Drug Becomes "Ethnic" - Yale Journal of Health Policy, Law and Ethics, v4:1
http://digitalcommons.law.yale.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1072&context=yjhple

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http://evolution.binghamton.edu/evos/wp-content/uploads/2012/04/PageProofs-Graves_race.pdf

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