Tuesday, May 11, 2010

early Europeans and middle Easterners looked like Africans. Peoples returning or "backflowing" to Africa would already be looking like Africans

Pale skin color of Europeans and Asiatics a recent event dating to only 6-12kya

Modern humans did not begin to lighten in skin color immediately after entering Europe some 35,000 years ago. In fact, these ancestral Europeans remained brown-skinned for tens of thousands of years. This is the conclusion now emerging from studies of skin color loci.

In 2005, a team of Japanese researchers found that the depigmentation of European skin was partly due to a relatively recent allele at the SLC45A2 (AIM1) gene. They dated the allele to c. 11,000 BP and concluded that it had rapidly supplanted the original allele through positive selection (Soejima et al., 2005).

Then last year, at the Annual Meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists, a molecular anthropologist at the University of Arizona, Heather Norton, presented evidence that Europeans have a similarly recent allele at another skin color gene, SLC24A5. The new allele is dated to 12,000 – 3,000 BP. As she stated during her talk: "The [evolution of] light skin occurred long after the arrival of modern humans in Europe." (Norton & Hammer, 2007).

Either way, the implication is that our European ancestors were brown-skinned for tens of thousands of years--a suggestion made 30 years ago by Stanford University geneticist L. Luca Cavalli-Sforza. He argued that the early immigrants to Europe, who were hunter-gatherers, herders, and fishers, survived on ready-made sources of vitamin D in their diet. But when farming spread in the past 6000 years, he argued, Europeans had fewer sources of vitamin D in their food and needed to absorb more sunlight to produce the vitamin in their skin. Cultural factors such as heavier clothing might also have favored increased absorption of sunlight on the few exposed areas of skin, such as hands and faces, says paleoanthropologist Nina Jablonski of PSU in State College. (Gibbons, 2007)
Gibbons, A. (2007). American Association Of Physical Anthropologists Meeting: European Skin Turned Pale Only Recently, Gene Suggests. Science 20 April 2007: 316. no. 5823, p. 364
Norton, H.L. & Hammer, M.F. (2007). Sequence variation in the pigmentation candidate gene SLC24A5 and evidence for independent evolution of light skin in European and East Asian populations. Program of the 77th Annual Meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists, p. 179.

Reconstruction of early European based
on scientific data about skin color, facial
and tropical features

First modern Europeans looked like Africans
Scientists reveal face of the first European
The face of the first European has been recreated from bone fragments by scientists.

By Urmee Khan, Digital and Media Correspondent
Published: 8:22PM BST 04 May 2009

The first modern European Forensic artist Richard Neave reconstructed the face based on skull fragments from 35000 years ago. The head was rebuilt in clay based on an incomplete skull and jawbone discovered in a cave in the south west of the Carpathian Mountains in Romania by potholers. Using radiocarbon analysis scientists say the man or woman, it is still not possible to determine the sex, lived between 34,000 and 36,000 years ago.

Europe was then occupied by both Neanderthal man, who had been in the region for thousands of years, and anatomically-modern humans – Homo sapiens. The skull appears very like humans today, but it also displays more archaic traits, such as very large molar teeth, which led some scientists to speculate the skull may belong to a hybrid between Homo sapiens and Neanderthals – an idea discounted by other experts.

Erik Trinkaus, professor of anthropology at Washington University in Missouri, said the jaw was the oldest, directly-dated modern human fossil. "Taken together, the material is the first that securely documents what modern humans looked like when they spread into Europe," he said.

The model was created by Richard Neave, a forensic artist, for a BBC programme about the origins of the human race and evolution.

Evolution shows that the original human skin color is dark and humans until quite recently had dark skin, until they migrated from the tropics.
"The evolution of a naked, darkly pigmented integument occurred early in the evolution of the genus Homo. A dark epidermis protected sweat glands from UV-induced injury, thus insuring the integrity of somatic thermoregulation. Of greater significance to individual reproductive success was that highly melanized skin protected against UV-induced photolysis of folate.. As hominids migrated outside of the tropics, varying degrees of depigmentation evolved in order to permit UVB-induced synthesis of previtamin D3. The lighter color of female skin may be required to permit synthesis of the relatively higher amounts of vitamin D3 necessary during pregnancy and lactation."
-- Jablonski, N (2000). The evolution of human skin coloration. Journal of Human Evolution 39, 57–106
"Humans skin is the most visible aspect of the human phenotype. It is distinguished mainly by its naked appearance, greatly enhanced abilities to dissipate body heat through sweating, and the great range of genetically determined skin colors present within a single species. Many aspects of the evolution of human skin and skin color can be reconstructed using comparative anatomy, physiology, and genomics. Enhancement of thermal sweating was a key innovation in human evolution that allowed maintenance of homeostasis (including constant brain temperature) during sustained physical activity in hot environments. Dark skin evolved pari passu with the loss of body hair and was the original state for the genus Homo. Melanin pigmentation is adaptive and has been maintained by natural selection."-- Jablonski N (2004)THE EVOLUTION OF HUMAN SKIN AND SKIN COLOR. Annual Review of Anthropology Vol. 33: 585-623
Early Europeans and Middle Easterners thus looked like Africans as shown by cranial, skin color and limb data. Any “backflow” or return to Africa, would be by people who already looked like Africans.

Rick Kittles and S. O. Y. Keita

Interpreting African Genetic Diversity
African Archaeological Review, Vol. 16, No. 2, 1999


Explanations of human biological variation in extant African populations have historically been shaped by a racial paradigm. In this paradigm deep genetic differences are assumed to exist between so-called "racial" groups or types, which are viewed as being composed of nearly uniform individuals and are taken as "natural" fundamental taxonomic units of Homo sapiens. These types were originally based on specific aspects of external morphology. Carleton Coon (1962), a physical anthropologist who contributed to this paradigm, proposed a theory of human evolution which postulated the independent emergence of five primordial races or subspecies from distinct, separate, Homo erectus ancestors. Two of these purported primordial races originated in Africa. They were called Congoid ("Pygmies") and Capoid (Khoisan or "Bushmen"). In Coon's conception other continental Africans, which exhibit a broad range of biological diversity, were considered to be primarily or only the result of various levels of admixture between these two groups with each other or with immigrants deemed to be of European or Asian origin and generally called "Caucasian." Although the causal aspects of Coon's theory have been rejected, racial thinking still persists today using Coon's categories and is quite evident in the methods and interpretation of genetic studies of African populations (Keita and Kittles, 1997).

Here we briefly discuss the implications of modern genetic studies of African and world populations for understanding African biohistory. We propose an evolutionary biogeographical model as an alternative to "racial" explanatory models of African biological diversity. A rational definition of African in a biological sense should be derived from biogeography and not be based on uninformed (and biased) traditions of practice.

Racial models, as traditionally presented, are static, and obligate one to postulate gene flow as the primary explanation for variation. The racial paradigm is manifested in the early writings on Africa by Seligman (1930) and Coon (1962,1965) and is still operationalized in varying degrees by anthropologists and geneticists, who otherwise reject Coon's thinking, to explain the vast biological diversity observed in the continent. While it is a formidable task to evaluate the extent of genetic diversity in Africa, it is quite evident that in many of these studies there is the lack of an evolutionary perspective. This is especially the case when northern Africa and the Horn are considered. The variation in these regions has generally been explained as being due primarily to admixture between "Africans" and "non-Africans." In fact, supra-Saharan African populations have frequently been conceptualized as being derived from "European" ancestors and, hence, non- African (see Seligman, 1930). The genetic profiles of supra-Saharan populations are indeed in a relative sense "intermediate" to those of various sub-Saharan groups (stereotypically defined) and "Eurasians" (see Guglielmino et al., 1987; Chibani et al., 1985; Tartaglia et al., 1996; Merghoub et al., 1997). But is this genetic "intermediateness" due primarily to supra-Saharan populations being foundationally an admixed group (the result of gene flow between two distinct "races")? Or is their biology reflective of factors acting on indigenous modern Homo sapien populations in Africa?

Invoking admixture to explain human variation is related to another polemic generally seen in many genetic studies of African populations. This is the persistence of the socially constructed normative view of the African as only the "Forest Negro" type, or the so-called "Pygmy" from Central Africa, in line with Coon's (1962, 1965) thinking. These populations are used as the representative African in many studies (see Bowcock et al., 1991, 1994; Cavalli-Sforza et al., 1994). Northern African populations are rarely used in research under the designation "African." Also, studies which utilize pooled samples of individuals from distinct African populations as a representative "race" are problematic. If modern humans evolved in Africa 150,000 to 200,000 years ago, and dispersed outside of Africa only about 100,000 years ago, why should it be assumed that those populations which remained in Africa became stagnant and homogeneous? While African populations share a common ancestry, they also have evolved separately for a long time. Evidence for isolation by distance operating in Africa is seen by genetic distinctions among eastern, western, northern, central, and southern Africa (Excoffier et al., 1987).

These genetic differences broadly correlate with geographic distances. Various populations in Africa have interacted via migrations during past history. One striking and most apparent signature of migration is the dramatic eastern-to-western Africa cline of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup L3a frequencies (Watson et al., 1997). Haplogroup L3a is closely related to a mtDNA haplotype common in European populations [the Cambridge Reference Sequence (Anderson et al., 1981)]. A subgroup of related mtDNA haplotypes appears to be East African specific and may represent a common ancestral sequence for most of Europe and Eurasia. In other words, the mtDNA diversity observed in non-African populations is a subset of African mtDNA variation. We note that while this group of mtDNA haplotypes is common in Eastern Africa, it represents only a subset of the total mtDNA diversity observed throughout the African continent. A similar pattern is observed for nuclear (Tishkoff et al., 1996, 1998) and Y chromosome (Passarino et al., 1998) variation in Eastern Africa. There are several implications for these observations. First, it provides evidence for an African (specifically, Eastern African) origin for Eurasians. Second it suggests that before major migrations occurred out of the continent, populations were diverging. These observations deconstruct racial thinking, especially the concept of "racial divergence."

The term racial divergence fails to describe the process responsible for producing the variation that exists as a continuum in the human species. So-called racial divergence dates reflect the times of differentiation of genes within populations used in a given analysis and should be interpreted as such. "Racial divergence" time estimates have been used to infer the age of the common ancestor between sampled groups, but this is definitely not the time of origin for the so-called "racial groups," which traditionally have been defined by morphology, nor is it the time of "origin" for the sampled populations. Time, geography, and other data help elucidate the larger meaning of genetic studies. A date of 156,000 years ago has been suggested by Goldstein etal. (1995) for the separation of African (stereotypically defined) and non-African populations. Given that there is no fossil evidence for modern humans anywhere at 150,000 years ago except in Africa, this does not represent an African/non-African "split." This date is actually an estimate of the initial genetic divergence that occurred within the continent of Africa among our modern human ancestors. After the expansion of modern humans out of Africa, subsets of the resultant genetic variation were distributed throughout the other continents. Most genetic variants observed outside of Africa are also found within Africa at various frequencies (and are of indigenous origin); this clearly indicates that "Africans" are not monomorphic. Northern African genetics, when this information is considered carefully with palaeontological data, would not seem to be explicable as simply "hybrids" or lost Eurasians. A different perspective, having more explanatory power and consistent with the available data, is that northern and Horn of Africa populations constitute gradients of differentiation largely reflective of African biohistorical processes.

The data of Tishkoff et al. (1996, 1998) are best interpreted as suggesting that a model of in situ evolutionary differentiation explains the bulk of variation in Africa (which includes supra-Saharan, Saharan, and sub-Saharan regions). Markers from mitochondrial DNA and the Y chromosome, which define maternal and paternal lineages, respectively, also reveal significant differentiation of ancestral African populations (Watson et al., 1996,1997; Passarino et al., 1998; Malaspina et al., 1998). Another likely example of internal differentiation within Africa is to be found in the "unusual" genetic makeup of the Khoisan, a southern African population with a high frequency of purported "Asian" alleles (Cavalli-Sforza et al., 1994). Some suggest admixture with Asians to explain the Khoisan genetic profile. However, the Khoisan speakers may be descendants of a generalized ancestral human population from which modern Asian and African populations were ultimately derived. The Khoisan have been shown to be less diverse than other African populations for a variety of genetic loci (Excoffier et al., 1987). This may be due to two reasons: historical isolation and a smaller effective population size. The Khoisan have historically remained relatively isolated from other African populations due to cultural and linguistic differences. Also, the smaller effective population size is likely the result of the hunter-gatherer culture of the Khoisan. These cultural and subsistence patterns could promote significant differentiation of the population.

The overall pattern of genetic variation that exists within and outside of Africa suggests an African origin of modern humans and a recent common origin of non- African populations. The pattern of human genetic diversity supportive of this position is observed in studies which examine genetic signatures left behind from population expansions and population bottlenecks (Rogers and Harpending, 1992; Harpending et al., 1993, 1998; Shriver et al., 1997; Reich and Goldstein, 1998; Kimmel etal., 1998; Jorde et al., 1997). These studies consistently reveal an initial population expansion within Africa prior to out-migration into other continents. What is actually a population expansion has been mistakenly termed "racial divergence," which implies morphological differentiation into the recognizable entities now labeled "races." In reality, it represents the early genetic divergence of ancestral Homo sapiens. From the genetic data we find evidence of in situ differentiation (or genetic divergence) of mid-Pleistocene populations in Africa and subsequent migrations out of Africa into Europe and Asia, with continued drift due to isolation by distance and founder effects, which abruptly end when expansion in population size and frequent migrations occurred. Also, numerous environmental zones exerted their own selective pressures on the populations. The populations remaining in Africa are the primary ancestors of present Africans. This model is more consistent with archaeological and molecular evidence and can be tested using various data sets. This biogeographical perspective better explains the main source of variation within Africa and obviates the need for racial thinking and its associated baggage.

mtDNA DATA in North Africa and Egypt
Much North African and N.E. mtDNA (passed on from mother) is weighted towards Africa rather than Europe or the Near East. The L1, L2 and L3 groups, along with M1 are African derived. Others, such as U6, may represent a mutation of African L3 returning to Africa some scholars hold (Gonzalez 2007) while others see the original roots already being formed in Africa before migrating out (Kivisild 2003). Dating of movements is a matter of debate. Some scholars (Maca-Meyer et al 2003) argue that the U6 mutation returned to Africa from Eurasia in a range up to 66kya. However National Geographic’s 2010 Genographic project shows modern humans FIRST leaving Africa 50-60kya, AFTER the time of the supposed return or ‘backflow’. Whichever approach is used, the original African migrants looked like tropical Africans, and early peoples returning to Africa from Europe or West Asia, looked like today’s tropical Africans (Brace 2005, Hanihara 1996).
Map from -- Salas et al. (2002) The Making of the African mtDNA Landscape Am J Hum Genet. 71(5): 1082-1111.

Berber populations in Egypt more related to tropical Africans than other Berbers.

"The mitochondrial DNA variation of 295 Berber-speakers from Morocco (Asni, Bouhria and Figuig) and the Egyptian oasis of Siwa was evaluated.. A clear and significant genetic differentiation between the Berbers from Maghreb and Egyptian Berbers was also observed. The first are related to European populations as shown by haplogroup H1 and V frequencies, whereas the latter share more affinities with East African and Nile Valley populations as indicated by the high frequency of M1 and the presence of L0a1, L3i, L4*, and L4b2 lineages. Moreover, haplogroup U6 was not observed in Siwa. We conclude that the origins and maternal diversity of Berber populations are old and complex, and these communities bear genetic characteristics resulting from various events of gene flow with surrounding and migrating populations."
-- Coudray et al. (2008). The Complex and Diversified Mitochondrial Gene Pool of Berber Populations. Annals of Human Genetics. Volume 73 Issue 2, Pages 196 - 214

Even with much Arab admixture and Middle Eastern influx, a 2003 study of modern Egyptians still found strong African genetic influence. About half of the mtDNA’s in today’s Egypt is African based. The biggest single percentage found was African M1.
QUOTE: Our results suggest that the Gurna population has conserved the trace of an ancestral genetic structure from an
ancestral East African population, characterized by a high M1 haplogroup frequency.”
--Stevanovich et al 2004. Mitochondrial DNA Sequence Diversity..


Joint products of "racial evolution"...


Go with the flow 3- more DNA and cranial studies show ancient African migration to, or African presence in ancient Europe

Go with the flow 2- African gene flow into Europe in various eras

DNA studies show African movement to Europe from very ancient times

Guilt3- Why the "white privilege industry" is not all there

Guilt2- Media collaborates with guilt mongers - or how to play the white victim card

How Obama plays on white guilt

Blacks oppose free speech- more ramshackle "research" from "the East"..

Hands off the Confederate flag

Despite much more wealth than blacks, whites collect about the same rate of welfare and are treated more generously

African "boat people" ushering in European demographic decline

The forgotten Holocaust- King Leopold's "Congo Free State" - 10 million victims

Are violent minorities taking over California and the West?

Presidential hopeful Ben Carson meets and Greeks

Contra "ISIS" partisans, there have been some beneficial effects of Christianity

The social construction of race, compared to biology- Graves

 Why HBD or hereditarianism lacks credibility

Leading Scientists criticize hereditarian claims

Thai me down - Thais fall behind genetically related southern Chinese, Tibetans below genetically related East Asians like Koreans and other Chinese

Time for liberals to respect "the south" ... in a way of speaking.. the south of Egypt that is..

Irony 2: touted High IQ "G-men" cannot reproduce themselves 

Unz and Sowell: Unz debunking Lynn's IQ and Wealth of Nations. Sowell debunking the Bell Curve

Irony 1: touted High IQ types are more homosexual, more atheist, and more liberal (HAL)

Elite white universities discriminate against Asians using reverse "affirmative action"

Deteriorating state of white America

Racial Cartels (The Affirmative Action Propaganda machine- part 2

Hereditarian's/HBD's "Great Black Hope"

Exploding nonsense: the 10,000 Year Explosion

We need "rational racism"? Proponent Dinesh D;Souza becomes his own test case

The Affirmative Action Propaganda Machine- part 1

Two rules for being "really" black- no white wimmen, no Republican

The Axial age reconsidered - or latitude not attitide

Cannibal seasonings: dark meat on white

"Affirmative Action" in the form of court remedies has been around a long time- since the 1930s- benefiting white union workers against discrimination by employers

Mugged by reality 1: White quotas, special preferences and government jobs

Lightweight enforcement of EEO laws contradicts claims of "flood" of minorities "taking jobs"

Railroaded 3: white violence and intimidation imposed quotas

Railroaded 2: how white quotas and special preferences blockade black progress...

Railroaded 1: How white affirmative action and white special preferences destroyed black railroad employment...

Affirmative action: primary beneficiaries are white women...

7 reasons certain libertarians and right-wingers are wrong about the Civil Right Act

Social philosophy of Thomas Sowell

Bogus "biodiversity" theories of Kanazawa, Ruston, Lynn debunked

JP Rushton, Michael Levin, Richard Lynn debunked. Weaknesses of Jared Diamond's approach. 

In the Blood- debunking "HBD" and Neo-Nazi appropriation of ancient Egypt

early Europeans and middle Easterners looked like Africans. Peoples returning or "backflowing" to Africa would already be looking like Africans

 Ancient Egypt: one of the world's most advanced civilizations- created by tropical peoples

Playing the "Greek defence" -debunking claims of Greeks as paragons of virtue or exemplars of goodness

Quotations from mainstream academic research on the Nile Valley peoples

Assorted data debunking

Evolution, brain size, and the national IQ of peoples ... - Jelte Wicherts 2010

Why national IQs do not support evolutionary theories of intelligence - WIcherts, Borsboom and Dolan 2010
Personality and Individual Differences 48 (2010) 91-96
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Are intelligence tests measurement invariant over time? by JM Wicherts - ?2004
 --Dolan, Wicherts et al 2004. Investigating the nature of the Flynn effect. Intelligence 32 (2004) 509-537

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Race and other misadventures: essays in honor of Ashley Montagu... By Larry T. Reynolds, Leonard Lieberman


Race and intelligence: separating science from myth. By Jefferson M. Fish. Routledge 2002. See Templeton's detailed article referenced above also inside the book


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Oubre, A (2011) Race Genes and Ability: Rethinking Ethnic Differences, vol 1 and 2. BTI Press
For summary see: http://www.skeptic.com/eskeptic/05-02-18/
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--S OY Keita, R A Kittles, et al. "Conceptualizing human variation," Nature Genetics 36, S17 - S20 (2004)

--S.O.Y. Keita and Rick Kittles. (1997) *The Persistence ofRacial Thinking and the Myth of Racial Divergence. AJPA, 99:3
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Alan Templeton. "The Genetic and Evolutionary significnce oF Human Races." pp 31-56. IN: J. FiSh (2002) Race and Intelligence: Separating scinnce from myth.

 J. FiSh (2002) Race and Intelligence: Separating science from myth.


-------------------------------- ---------------------

Oubre, A (2011) Race Genes and Ability: Rethinking Ethnic Differences, vol 1 and 2. BTI Press

Krimsky, S, Sloan.K (2011) Race and the Genetic Revolution: Science, Myth, and Culture

Wicherts and Johnson, 2009. Group differences in the heritability of items and test scores

--Joseph Graves, 2006. What We Know and What We Don’t Know: Human Genetic Variation and the Social Construction of Race

J. Kahn (2013) How a Drug Becomes "Ethnic" - Yale Journal of Health Policy, Law and Ethics, v4:1

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Maple Syrup said...

Have you seen this comment on 1STDV's?

Bad example, Californian. Despite their dark skin color, Somalis aren't actually "Black Africans", but a genetically & phenotypically distinct people that have assimilated many so-called "Black Africans" within their ranks. As for Somalis supposedly not being able to create functional societies, you should know that the war in Somalia is going on in the southern part of the nation (where, incidentally, most residents aren't ethnically Somali), while the northern regions are actually quite peaceful (where most people are ethnically Somali). Get your facts straight.



Too Tall Jones said...

Maple Syrup said...

Have you seen this comment on 1STDV's?

Bad example, Californian. Despite their dark skin color, Somalis aren't actually "Black Africans", but a genetically & phenotypically distinct people that have assimilated many so-called "Black Africans" within their ranks. As for Somalis supposedly not being able to create functional societies, you should know that the war in Somalia is going on in the southern part of the nation (where, incidentally, most residents aren't ethnically Somali), while the northern regions are actually quite peaceful (where most people are ethnically Somali). Get your facts straight.

Just saw it- thanks for your comments. It is completely nonsensical. Somalis whether measured by blood group, DNA or cranial data cluster with tropically adapted sub-Saharan Africans (or "black Africans" the non technical name) more than any other peoples, as the following data from credible mainstream scientists clearly show.