Sunday, December 2, 2012

Better nutrition led to increases in body mass in ancient Nile Valley

Better nutrition does not necessarily mean intensive sedentary agriculture. Better foraging and resources bases can boost nutrition as well. In the Nile Valley, a substantial, mixed subsistence economy was long in place. The ancient Egyptian Badarian, who in numerous studies cluster with tropical Africans had a substantial  population and resource base- reflecting rich subsistence foraging and harvesting,  not merely sedentary agriculture. Such mixed economies including harvesting of wild  grains and tubers is an early development in Africa and the Nile Valley scholars show,  without needing any outside settlers. QUOTE: 

"Here we demonstrate that this transition is also associated with a modest reduction  and subsequent improvement  in stature and body mass. This trend could be broadly  interpreted in the context of  models of relationship between body size and nutrition.  In this case, the greater body size of early hunter-gatherers may reflect the benefit of  broadly based hunting and gathering subsistence... Archaological evidence suggest  that the Badarian civilization had higher population density than did other contemporaneous civilizations (Gabriel, 1987; Hassan 1988)." 
--Pihnasi and Stock (2011) Human Bioarchaeology of the Transition to Agriculture 

A rich, indigenous foraging and harvesting strategy is old news in boosting better nutrition in ancient Africa- QUOTE:
“The adoption of this broad adaptive strategy provided the large food supply needed by a growing population, but achieving maximum production called for a good deal of planning and the management of labour. This marks the beginning of an organized food-producing system: agriculture.” “Dating from more than 15,000 years ago, the evidence from the Nile valley is arguably the earliest comprehensive instance of an organized food-producing system known anywhere on Earth.”
--Africa: A Biography of the Continent, by John Reader, 1998, pp. 120-173 

The transition to better nutrition & agriculture is associated with increases in sexual dimorphism, a pattern also occurring in the studies of ancient Americans.  Quote:
"The OK possesses the highest SDS of all temporal groups, including individual Predynastic sites (Table 10; Figure 10). The greatest increase in SDS is thus from the Predyn to OK." --Raxter 2011 UnpubDis.

-----New World data - same pattern associated with better nutrition not influxes of outsiders. QUOTE: 
"Finally body mass has long been recognized as a morphological trait  amongst humans that relates to ecogeographic patterns in association  with climate (Holliday, 1997, Rull 1994). However, Auerbach (2007) found  that the relationship between climatic factors and body mass amongst a broad sample of New World groups was inconsistent and may have been influenced by subsistence.. ..there is a similar trend amongst both males and females: the agriculturalists are taller and more massive, on the average.  This is identical to patterns of diachronic change in stature documented  using different samples from the southeast... There is also a coincident  slight increase in sexual dimorphism among the agriculturalist samples, accompanied by a slight increase in overall variance in stature, body  mass and bi-iliac breath.. In short, the long temporal perspective on the  development of agriculture in the Southeast may be characterized by  significant overall increases in body size for both males and females." 
-- Pinhasi and Stock (2011). Human Bioarchaeology of the Transition to Agriculture

Long native settlement- No mass influx of outsiders-  QUOTE:
“Furthermore, the archaeology of northern Africa does not support demic diffusion of farming from the Near East. The evidence presented by Wetterstrom indicates that early  African farmers in the Fayum initially incorporated Near  Eastern domesticates into an INDIGENOUS foraging strategy,  and only over time developed a dependence on horticulture.  This is inconsistent with in-migrating farming settlers,  who would have brought a more abrupt  change in subsistence  strategy. "The same archaeological pattern occurs west of  Egypt..”
--Ehret, Keita, Newman, Bellwood (2004). The Origins of Afroasiatic  Science 3 v306, n5702, p1680

Joint products of "racial evolution"...


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Why national IQs do not support evolutionary theories of intelligence - WIcherts, Borsboom and Dolan 2010
Personality and Individual Differences 48 (2010) 91-96
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Are intelligence tests measurement invariant over time? by JM Wicherts - ?2004
 --Dolan, Wicherts et al 2004. Investigating the nature of the Flynn effect. Intelligence 32 (2004) 509-537

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Race and other misadventures: essays in honor of Ashley Montagu... By Larry T. Reynolds, Leonard Lieberman

Race and intelligence: separating science from myth. By Jefferson M. Fish. Routledge 2002. See Templeton's detailed article referenced above also inside the book
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Oubre, A (2011) Race Genes and Ability: Rethinking Ethnic Differences, vol 1 and 2. BTI Press
For summary see:
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--S OY Keita, R A Kittles, et al. "Conceptualizing human variation," Nature Genetics 36, S17 - S20 (2004)

--S.O.Y. Keita and Rick Kittles. (1997) *The Persistence ofRacial Thinking and the Myth of Racial Divergence. AJPA, 99:3
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Alan Templeton. "The Genetic and Evolutionary significnce oF Human Races." pp 31-56. IN: J. FiSh (2002) Race and Intelligence: Separating scinnce from myth.

 J. FiSh (2002) Race and Intelligence: Separating science from myth.


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Oubre, A (2011) Race Genes and Ability: Rethinking Ethnic Differences, vol 1 and 2. BTI Press

Krimsky, S, Sloan.K (2011) Race and the Genetic Revolution: Science, Myth, and Culture

Wicherts and Johnson, 2009. Group differences in the heritability of items and test scores

--Joseph Graves, 2006. What We Know and What We Don’t Know: Human Genetic Variation and the Social Construction of Race

J. Kahn (2013) How a Drug Becomes "Ethnic" - Yale Journal of Health Policy, Law and Ethics, v4:1

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